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Lesson 1(上) No Giant Skyscrapers 2016


Lesson 1
No Giant Skyscrapers

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教改内容:
1. 强调译前阅读——《加州建筑》,强化学生的译 入语语言能力,为翻译实践打好坚实的基础。 2. 打破传统的以“产品”为主的翻译教学模式,强 调“翻译过程”,注重学生对整个翻译过程的体验, 包括译前活动(目的语阅读)、翻译的分析、转化和 重构、以及译后活动(讨论及修改) 3.增加“五分钟翻译理论讲解”部分,以言简意赅的 方式导入翻译策略,更多关注学生实践。 4.鼓励学生进行有个性的翻译,通过学生译文、老师 译文、参考译文的激烈碰撞,实践以学生为中心,讨 论式、开放式的教学模式。

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Issues to Be Taught
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?1. Five-minute translation tips-----Sentence Structure of English Simple sentences 2. Translation of “No Giant Skyscrapers”
?2.1. Pre-translation ?2.2. Translation Process and discussion 2.3. Post-translation---A Review

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?1. 5-minute lecture: Translation Tips
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SV: The earth shakes. SVA: The most famous earthquake in California happened in 1906. SVC: The San Andreas Fault is a cause of earthquakes. SVO: People rebuilt the city. SVOA: She put her camera into her bag. SVoO: He taught us history. (bi-transitive verb) SVOC: These earthquakes make the fault bigger. A:obligatory adverbial(强制性状语) C: complement P26. 英语简单句的共同特点是:除了祈使语气之外,都必须有主语(S) 和限定动词充当的谓语(V)

complement
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5 [N-COUNT] In grammar, the of a link verb is an adjective group or noun group which comes after the verb and describes or identifies the subject. For example, in the sentence `They felt very tired', `very tired' is the complement. In `They were students', `students' is the complement.

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English: Subject-prominent language 汉语 Topic—prominent language SL: It seems that the weather is changing. TL: 看样子要变天了。

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正在热闹哄哄的时节,只见那后台里,又出来 了一位姑娘,年纪约十八九岁,装束与前一个 毫无分别,瓜子脸儿,白净面皮,相貌不过中 人以上之姿,只觉得秀而不媚,清而不寒 ……(《老残游记》刘鹗)
Admist the feverish bustling, there appeared on the stage a girl about eighteen or nineteen years old, dressed up just like the former. Her face was shaped like melon-seed. Her beauty was above the average, woman-charming but not coquettish, and a clarity of complexion but not coldness. (金萍,2012:5)

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正在热闹哄哄的时节,只见那后台里,又出来 了一位姑娘,年纪约十八九岁,装束与前一个 毫无分别,瓜子脸儿,白净面皮,相貌不过中 人以上之姿,只觉得秀而不媚,清而不寒 ……(《老残游记》刘鹗)
Admist the bustling, there appeared on the stage a girl about eighteen or nineteen years old, dressed up just like the former. She had a little oval face and white skin. Her beauty was just above the average, delicate but not coquettish, and simple but elegant. (Rose, 2016)

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Feverish activity is done extremely quickly, often in a state of nervousness or excitement because you want to finish it as soon as possible. Oval 椭圆形的 little oval face co|quet|tish /k?k'et??, AM ko?-/ [ADJ] If you describe a woman as coquettish, you mean she acts in a playful way that is intended to make men find her attractive.
The complexion of something is its general nature or character. (FORMAL)

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2 No Giant Skyscrapers
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2.1. Pre-translation 2.2. Translation Process and Analysis 2.3. Post-translation---A Review

?2.1 Pre-translation
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An encyclopedic knowledge about “Seismic Buildings in California”

Seismic [?sa?zm?k] means caused by or relating to an earthquake.

?Reading in the target language
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1906年4月18日凌晨5时12分,美国旧金山发生7.9级 强烈地震(后来修正为8.3级),震中位于接近旧金 山的圣安地列斯断层上。 40秒钟内这座世界名城化 为一片废墟。水管、煤气管道被毁;大火随之而起, 燃烧了3天3夜,又将全市520个街区的近3万栋楼房化 为灰烬。拥有40万人口的旧金山,丧失3000条生命, 25万人无家可归。频繁的余震使全市半数以上的居民 只好在广场、公园里过夜。损失超过1500亿美元。这 次地震成为美国历史上最重大的自然灾难之一。

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Target language Reading:

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1906年发生的旧金山大地震推动了抗震设计的 建筑法的出笼。在随后的各次大地震中,如 1925年加州圣巴巴拉(Santa Barbara)地震, 1933年长滩(long Beach) 地震,1971年的圣 费尔南多(San Fernando)地震,1989年普里 塔(Loma Prieta)地震和1994年的北岭 (Northridge)地震,随着人们更多地了解地 基和建筑物对地震反应的关系,美国和加州政 府及时吸取教训总结经验,使其建筑法 (building code)不断得到完善和健全。

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Please Do Sight Interpretation: California Seismic Building Codes After a severe earthquake in California in 1971, significant enhancements to the building codes pertaining to earthquakes were made. The first real test of the improvements came in an earthquake that hit Los Angeles on January 17, 1994. Structures built or strengthened under the new codes experienced limited damage, while older buildings and other construction such as those bridges that had not been retrofitted suffered more damage.
If one thing pertains to another, it relates, belongs, or applies to it. (FORMAL) To retrofit [‘retr?’fit] a machine or a building means to put new parts or new equipment in it after it has been in use for some time, especially to improve its safety or make it work better.

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California Seismic Building Codes After a severe earthquake in California in 1971, significant enhancements to the building codes pertaining to earthquakes were made(?). The first real test of the improvements came in an earthquake that hit Los Angeles on January 17, 1994. Structures built or strengthened under the new codes experienced limited damage, while older buildings and other construction such as those bridges that had not been retrofitted suffered more damage. 试译: 加州防震建筑法 1971年加州发生了一次特大地震 ,之后加州政府大力完善 了其防震建筑法。这一(修订后的)法规在1994年1月17 日洛杉矶的一次地震中经受住了第一次真正的考验。 (1994年1月17日洛杉矶发生的一次地震成为新法规的第 一块试金石。)依照新法规建造或加固的建筑在地震中受 到的破坏并不大(仅仅受到了有限的破坏),而之前未经 加固的旧楼以及诸如桥梁之类的建筑却遭受重创。

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?2.2 Translation Process and Discussion

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Translation of No Giant Skyscrapers

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Chicago and New York are famous for their tall buildings. California cannot be. Its buildings have to be famous for their beauty or their historical importance. California is earthquake country.
参考译文:芝加哥和纽约以高楼林立而出名。加利福尼 亚不可能如此。这里的建筑物要出名,必须美观,或具 有历史意义。加利福尼亚是地震区。

Rose:高楼大厦在芝加哥和纽约久负盛名,而在加州 却十分鲜见。加州属于地震带。加州建筑的盛名来自于 美观的设计或是沧桑的历史感。

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A particular kind of country is an area of land which has particular characteristics or is connected with a particular well-known person. Varese Ligure is a small town in mountainous country east of Genoa.

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??? coun|try /k??ntri/ (countries) 1 [N-COUNT] A country is one of the political units which the world is divided into, covering a particular area of land. Indonesia is the fifth most populous country in the world. ...that disputed boundary between the two countries... Young people do move around the country quite a bit these days. 2 [N-SING] usu the N The people who live in a particular country can be referred to as the country. Seventy per cent of this country is opposed to blood sports. 3 [N-SING] the N The country consists of places such as farms, open fields, and villages which are away from towns and cities. ...a healthy life in the country... She was cycling along a country road near Compiegne... = countryside 4 [N-UNCOUNT] supp N A particular kind of country is an area of land which has particular characteristics or is connected with a particular well-known person. Varese Ligure is a small town in mountainous country east of Genoa. 5 [N-UNCOUNT] usu N n Country music is popular music from the southern United States. ...a famous country singer named Katie Cocker.
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------柯林斯词典

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The San Andreas Fault is a cause of earthquakes. It is a long crack in the earth that stretches from Southern to Northern California. Rocks inside the earth move and the earth shakes. These earthquakes make the fault bigger.
参考译文:圣安德列亚斯断层是造成地震的原因之一。 这(个断层)是一条很长的地下裂逢,纵贯加利福尼亚南北。 地下岩石一移动,地面就震动起来。地震又使断层扩大。
Rose: 引发地震的原因之一便是安德烈亚斯断层。这 是一条狭长的地下裂缝,贯穿加利福尼亚的南北。地底的 岩石块一移动,地面就开始震动。这样,地震又使得断层 继续扩大。

The San Andreas Fault

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“It” 的汉译: 汉语中慎用“它”作主语和定语。 building n. [U] (art, business or profession of) constructing houses, etc 建筑(的艺术或行业): the building trade 建筑业
move: When you move something or when it moves, its position changes and it does not remain still.

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and
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You use and to link two clauses when the second clause is a result of the first clause. All through yesterday crowds have been arriving and by midnight thousands of people packed the square. You use and to link two statements about events when one of the events follows the other. I waved goodbye and went down the stone steps.

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The most famous earthquake in California happened in 1906. It destroyed most of the young city of San Francisco. People rebuilt the city. They looked at the buildings that did not fall in the earthquake and they learned more about building in California. 参考译文:加利福亚尼亚最有名的地震发生于1906年。这 场地震摧毁了新兴城市旧金山大部分建筑(增译)。人们重 建了这座城市。他们观察地震过后仍然屹立的(地震时未 曾/没有坍塌)的楼房,对在加利福尼亚如何进行建筑(的 房屋建筑)有了更多的了解。

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Rose:1906年加州发生了一次最为著名的地震,新城旧金 山几乎化为一片废墟。后来,人们重建了旧金山市。他们 观察地震中屹立不倒的建筑,加深了对加州建筑的认识。

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Building V+ing
A gerund [?d?er?nd] is a noun formed from a verb which refers to an action, process, or state.

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倒塌 dǎotā (建筑物)倒下来:房屋~。 坍塌 tāntā (山坡、河岸、建筑物或堆积的东西)倒下来: 院墙~。 倒塌。 ? --------现代汉语词典

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Tall buildings can be dangerous in earthquakes. Today California has codes that say how a building must be built and how tall it can be. Los Angeles has several earthquakes each year. The tall buildings move a little and everyone takes a deep breath. Usually tourists and newcomers are the most frightened. People who grew up in California say, “We?re used to it!” 高层建筑在地震中可能造成危险。今天,加利福尼亚有条例 规定楼房必须如何建筑,可建多高。 洛杉矶每年发生几场地震。高楼晃动一下子,人人都深深地 吸一口气(倒吸一口冷气)。 游客和初来乍到者往往吓得最厉 害(最为恐慌的便数那些游客和初来乍到的人了)。加利福 尼亚土生土长的人则说:“我们习以为常了。”

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Earthquakes do not stop the building industry in California, but they do make architects work a little harder (in ?). The buildings they design have to look good and stand up in an earthquake. These buildings are good examples of modern California architecture.
参考译文:地震并没有使加利福尼亚的建筑业停下来(停 滞),但的确迫使建筑师多花点心思(使点劲儿)。他们 设计的建筑物必须好看(美观),(而且)地震时屹立不 动。这些建筑物是加利福尼亚现代建筑的典范。 Rose: 地震没有阻碍加州建筑业的发展,但是这着实要让 建筑师们多费点儿劲了。他们设计的建筑不仅要美观,而 且要抗震。这是加州现代建筑的典范。

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The Bonaventure Hotel is a few city blocks from the old Mission Church. The Century City Complex is near the ocean. It stands on the site of the old Twentieth Century Fox movie studios. These buildings show that people are not afraid to build in California. 参考译文:博纳文彻大酒店从古老的传教教堂横过几条街 道(街区)就到了。世纪城市建筑群离太平洋岸不远, 坐落 于先前的二十世纪福克斯电影制片厂旧址。这些建筑物表 明,人们并不害怕在加利福尼亚建造房屋。

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Rose: 博纳文彻大酒店离古老的传教教堂只有几个街区。 “世纪城”综合大楼濒临太平洋——这是二十世纪福克斯 电影制片厂旧址。而这些建筑表明,人们并不害怕在加州 建筑高楼。

The Bonaventure Hotel & Century City Complex

a 33-story building

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A city block is the smallest area that is surrounded by streets used in urban design.
dark gray: Streets
light gray: Alley; Sidewalks; Walkways Green: Parkways

街道- City Blocks街区
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1. Cultural difference China: Winding streets; 依山傍水的建筑风格。 Western Countries: straight streets; urban design.
2. Shift of Perspective 视点转换

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A complex is a group of buildings (designed for a particular purpose, or one large building divided into several smaller areas.)
...plans for constructing a new stadium and leisure complex.

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studio
(a) place where cinema films are acted and photographed (电影)摄影棚.

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(b) (usu pl通常作复数), including all its buildings, offices, etc cinema company电影公 司; 电影制片厂:

Homework
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1. Group work: Translation and presentation 1. 译语阅读(背景知识) 2. 翻译展示与分析 (4个译本,标明姓名) 3. 总结和心得


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