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2014年上海高考英语试卷分析


2014 年全国普通高等学校招生统一考试

上海

英语试卷

考生注意: 1. 考试时间 120 分钟,试卷满分 150 分。 2. 本考试设试卷和答题纸两部分。试卷分为第Ⅰ 卷(笫 1-12 页)和第Ⅱ 卷(第 13 页) ,全 卷共 13 页。所有答題必须涂(选择题)或写(非选择题)在答题纸上,做在试卷上一 律不得分。 3. 答題前,务必在答題纸上填写准考证号和姓名,并将核对后的条形码貼在指定位置上, 在答題纸反面清楚地填写姓名。

第I卷

(共 103 分)

I. Listening Comprehension Section A Directions: In Section A, you will hear ten short conversations between two speakers. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. The conversations and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a conversation and the question about it, read the four possible answers on your paper, and decide which one is the best answer to the question you have heard. 1. A. policewoman. 【参考答案】A 【考查能力】人物身份判断 【试题解析】通过 theft 和 stolen 很容易辨别出 speaker2 是在报案,且通过 speaker1 比较程 式化的询问就可以得出她是 policewoman 。 B. A judge. C. A reporter. D. A waitress.

2. A. Confident. 【参考答案】D 【考查能力】人物情感判断

B. Puzzled.

C. Satisfied.

D. Worried.

【试题解析】关键词:You will take care, won?t you? 情感判断题一般需要把握好说话人的语 气。

3. A. At a restaurant. C. In a bank. 【参考答案】B 【考查能力】地点判断

B. At a car rental agency. D. In a driving school.

【试题解析】 地点题较之往年难度上有略微提升,通过 reservation 并不能直接判断出答案, 反而会让学生以为是 restaurant 场景而误选,还需要结合后面的 driver's license 推测答案 。
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4. A. A disaster. 【参考答案】A

B. A new roof.

C. A performance.

D. A TV station.

【考查能力】细节把握及语义推断 【试题解析】本题解题关键把握 flood 及 damage 两个关键词,在此基础之上,结合问题作 出适当地推断并不难选出答案。但不排除有些学生听到 roof 这个单词而误选 B,但是这类 题不能简单只考一个单词进行判断,而是需要对语篇整体进行把握。

5. A. Catch the train. C. Get some stationery. 【参考答案】B 【考查能力】细节把握及语义推断

B. Meet Jane. D. Clean the backyard.

【试题解析】本题把握好问题是解题关键:问题是 What will the man do first,所以尽管这个 男士答应帮助女士 clean the backyard,但是他首先要做的事是 picking Jena from the railway station ,所以本题答案为 B

6. A. Ask for something cheaper. C. Protect herself from being hurt. 【参考答案】D 【考查能力】细节把握及语义推断

B. Buy the vase she really likes. D. Bargain with the shop assistant.

【试题解析】本题根据 Speaker 1 的话语 but it?s a bit more than I want to spend 可断定,短文 的情景为买东西, 另外 speaker 2 提到 you can get a better price, it can?t hurt to ask.可推断本题 的出题围绕价格,再观察选项则不难得出正确答案 D。

7. A. Use a computer in the lab. C. Help him revise his report. 【参考答案】A 【考查能力】细节把握及语义推断

B. Take a chemistry course. D. Get her computer repaired.

【试题解析】违背了一贯的的英语常见定律“阴盛阳衰” ,本题的男士并没有慷慨的让出电 脑,而是让这位女士去用 the computer lab 里的电脑。所以英文短话里没有绝对的“定律”, 对文意的把握永远是第一位的。 8. A. Amused. 【参考答案】C 【考查能力】人物情感判断
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B. Embarrassed.

C. Shocked.

D. Sympathetic.

【试题解析】和第二题类似,本题也是一个情感判断题,本题的解题关键在于 Speaker2 的 那句 Are you kidding ? 对此句把握较好,就不难得出正确选项为 C,但是本题选项中出现 了两个难词:B embarrassed 尴尬的 及 D sympathetic 同情的,部分学生有选偏差的倾向, 感觉不认识的单词更加“高大上 ” 。针对此类问题,老师可以在平时辅导中把常见的表达人 物情感的单词和学生进行一一梳理。

9. A. She doesn't plan to continue studying next year. B. She has already told the man about her plan. C. She isn?t planning to leave her university. D. She recently visited a different university. 【参考答案】C 【考查能力】细节把握及虚拟语气的理解 【试题解析】本题难度偏高,各选项与文本的匹配度都差不多,不能单纯依靠信息的单纯比 对得出答案,另外本题的答题关键在于对于虚拟语气句:If I were, you?d be the first to know. 的理解。虚拟语气在短对话中一直有考查,如果能把握好虚拟语气,此类题目还是比较简单 的。

10. A. It spoke highly of the mayor. C. It made the mayor?s view clearer. 【参考答案】B 【考查能力】细节把握及语义推断

B. It misinterpreted the mayor?s speech. D. It carried the mayor?s speech accurately.

【试题解析】解题关键: they twisted the meaning of what he said,本题难点在于部分学生不 一定快速能反应出 twist 这个单词的含义,从而不知道该如何答题了。在选项中进行了代换 用 misinterpret 替换 twist,所以在平时教学中应该关注对常见近义词的积累。

【短对话综合分析】短对话的组成一如既往,长选项与短选项几乎各占一半。需要特别提及 的几点是:首先今年的短、对话中没有出现数字题,数字题出现的频率还是比较高的,今年 虽然没有在短对话中出现,但是篇章题中有所涉及,同学们还是需要注意此类考题。 今年 的情感态度题出现了两次, 在平时教学中对此类题值得特别关注。 其次今年也有考到虚拟语 气, 因为虚拟语气不是高考明确要求的语法点, 很多老师都不是很重视, 或者平时讲解较少, 导致孩子对此类题目的答题并不是很好, 因此建议老师在平时辅导过程中应该关注对孩子这 部分能力的培养。 此外听力短对话的主要还是以考察理解推断能力, 学生必须对对话理解的 基础之上再进行判断才行。

Section B Directions: In Section B, you will hear two short passages, and you will be asked three questions
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on each of the passages. The passages will be read twice, but the questions will be spoken only once. When you hear a question, read the four possible answers on your paper and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard. Questions 11 through 13 are based on the following passage. 11. A. 70 【参考答案】C 【考查能力】细节把握 【试题解析】根据语段中“Paradise Reach is now home to 25 families. ”可判断本题答案应选 C,25。 12. A. The houses there can't be sold. C. The cabins and facilities are shared. 【参考答案】D 【考查能力】细节把握及推断 【试题解析】 根据语段中 “Everybody has to take responsibility for the day-to-day running of the community”可判断答案是 D。 B. It is a place for work and holiday. D. It is run by the residents themselves. B. 20 C. 25. D. 75

13. A. A skiing resort. C. A splendid mountain. 【参考答案】B 【考查能力】主旨大意把握

B. A special community. D. A successful businesswoman.

【试题解析】可以从语段的第三句话“Over 20 years ago, Cursty Bone, a successful business woman came here and founded Paradise Reach--- a cabin park, she said,” I want to live somewhere where everybody knows everybody else. ” 初 步 判 断 整 篇 报 道 都 是 关 于 一 个 community--Paradise Reach 的介绍。在文章听取中,community 一词高频出现,也可进一步 确定答案。

Questions 14 through 16 are based on the following news. 14. A. Those who often sent text messages. C. Those who did no physical exercise. 【参考答案】C 【考查能力】细节把握 【试题解析】 根据原文 “Those who were engaged in no physical activity were 26% more likely to have symptoms of depression 3 years later than those who exercised regularly.”可知正确答案是
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B. Those who suffered from heart disease. D. whose who were unmarried

C。本题的信息点关键在于关于词组“be engaged in”的转换。

15. A. They responded more slowly than usual. C. They typed 10 percent faster on average. 【参考答案】A 【考查能力】细节把握

B. They sent more messages. D. They edited more passages.

【试题解析】 根据原文 “When college students were asked to tell a lie during an interview with a computer, they took 10% longer on average to send the message”可知正确答案是 A。

16. A. Why chemical therapy works. B. Why marriage helps fight cancer. C. How unmarried people survive cancer. D. How cancer is detected after marriage. 【参考答案】B 【考查能力】主旨大意 【试题解析】根据文章第三则新闻的第一句话“Can marriage beat cancer?”已经点明主题, 所以需要对新闻的首句给予足够的关注。 Section C Directions: In Section C, you will hear two longer conversations. The conversations will be read twice. After you hear each conversation, you are required to fill in the numbered blanks with the information you have heard. Write your answers on your answer sheet. Blanks 17 through 20 are based on the following conversation. Complete the form. Write ONE WORD for each answer. Travelers’ Survey Sheet Travel purpose: for a(n) 17 in London Comments on the airport environment / facilities: Likes: ? 18 ? 19 walkways Dislikes: ? 20 shops ? small trolleys

17.【参考答案】conference 【试题解析】对话开篇不久就可以获取事实信息“for a conference in London” 。

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18.【参考答案】daylight 【试题解析】根据对话中的提问“What do you like most about the airport environment?”及 回答“Well, I really appreciate the daylight?”可得知答案。

19.【参考答案】moving 【试题解析】根据对话中“Another thing I like is the moving walkways.”中 another 一词可 以捕捉到信息。

20.【参考答案】overcrowded 【试题解析】 根据对话中的提问 “anything you don?t like?” 及回答 “En.., the shops are often overcrowded”可捕捉到信息。

Blanks 21 through 24 are based on the following conversation. Complete the form. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. What is critical thinking in reading? What is the first step in reading an academic text critically? What may serve as the evidence? What is the key to critical thinking? 21.【参考答案】implications and conclusions 【试题解析】 根据对话中的 “think about the implications and conclusions of what the writer is saying”可知所填答案。需注意 implication 的拼写及复数问题。 Assessing the writer?s ideas and thinking about the 21 of what the writer is saying. Finding out the argument and the writer's main line of 22 . 23 , survey results, examples, etc. To read actively and 24 .

22.【参考答案】 reasoning 【试题解析】 根据对话中“When you read an academic text, first, you should identify the argument, and work out the writer?s main line of reasoning.”可知所填答案。单词比较简单,但 是孩子们不定反应的过来,因为一般 reason 都是做名词用的,而此处是做“推理”讲,是 动词词性。

23.【参考答案】 Figures 【试题解析】根据对话中的信息“that maybe in the form of figures, survey results, examples, etc”可直接得出答案。需要注意的是,此处 figure 要大写且加 s。

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24.【参考答案】keep questioning 【试题解析】本题的信息点出现在对话的最后一句“read actively and keep asking yourself questions ”但需要对信息点做适当的转换,要将 question 转换成动词使用,将文章中 keep asking yourself questions 变成 keep questioning。本题答 keep questioning yourself 亦可。

II. Grammar and vocabulary Section A
Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank.

(A) My Stay in New York After graduation from university, I had been unable to secure a permanent job in my small town. So I decided to leave home for New York, (25)______I might have a better chance to find a good job. (26) ______ (earn) some money to pay the daily expenses, I started work in a local café as a waiter. I believed that (27) ______ ______ ______ I was offered a good position, I would resign at once. Over time, the high cost of living became a little burden on my already (28) ______ (exhaust) shoulder. On the other hand, my search for a respectable job had not met with much success. As I had studied literature at university, I found it quite difficult to secure a suitable job in big companies. Mother had just said that (29) ______ I wanted to have a better career advancement, I had to find work in the city. Perhaps (30) ______my mother had told me was deeply rooted in my mind. I just did as she had expected. Soon I had lived in the city for over six months but I still did not like it. Apparently, I had difficulty (31) ______ (adapt) myself to life in the city, let alone finding a job to my delight. After nine months of frustration, I eventually decided to go back to my small town. Not until I returned (32) ______I realize that a quiet town life was the best for me. 【参考答案】25 where 【考查内容】定语从句 【试题解析】New York 作先行词并且在后面句子中充当地点状语,故填 where

【参考答案】26 to earn 【考查内容】非谓语 【试题解析】不定式作目的状语

【参考答案】27 as soon as/ as long as

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【考查内容】时间状语从句或条件状语从句 【试题解析】本题为 3 个空的,第一反应是 3 个的连接词:as...as 系列及 no matter 系列, 再根据意思不难填出答案

【参考答案】28 exhausted 【考查内容】非谓语 【试题解析】过去分词做定语修饰 shoulder,此处译为:筋疲力尽的肩膀

【参考答案】29 if 【考查内容】条件状语从句 【试题解析】根据句意理解可知,此处填 if,表达如果含义

【参考答案】30 what 【考查内容】名词性从句 【试题解析】主语从句,且从句中缺少宾语,指物故填 what

【参考答案】31 adapting 【考查内容】动名词搭配结构 【试题解析】have difficulty (in) doing sth. 做某事有困难

【参考答案】32 did 【考查内容】倒装句 【试题解析】not until 位于句首,句子部分倒装,根据文章可判断时态应为过去式,故填 did

(B) The giant vending machine (自动售货机) is a new village shop Villagers have long been used to facing a drive when they run out of basic supplies. However, help is now nearer at hand in form of the country?s first automatic push-button shop. Now residents in the Derbyshire Village of Clifton can buy groceries around the clock after the huge vending was installed outside a pub in the village this week. Peter Fox, who is (33)______electrical engineer, spent two and a half years working on the project. The machine (34)______ (equip) with securing cameras and alarms and looks like a mini shop with a brick front, a grey roof and a display window.
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Mr. Fox said he hoped his invention, (35)______ is set to be installed in other villages in the area over the coming months, will mark a return to convenience shopping for rural communities. He said:“ I had this idea a few years ago but I couldn?t find a manufacture who could deliver what I wanted, so I did it by (36)______. The result is what amounts to huge outdoor vending machine. Yet I think the term ?automatic shop? is far (37)______ (appropriate)” In recent years, the commercial pressure from supermarket chains (38)______ (force )village shops across the country to close. In 2010, it was estimated that about 400 village shops closed, (39)______ (urge) the local government to give financial support to struggling shops or set-up new communities stores. Hundreds of communities have since stepped in and opened up their won volunteer-run shops, but Mr. Fox hopes his new invention will offer a solution (40)______those villages without a local shop. 【参考答案】33 an 【考查内容】冠词 【试题解析】engineer 是可数名词单数,且 electrical 是元音开头

【参考答案】34 is equipped 【考查内容】被动语态及动词不规则变化 【试题解析】根据语义可知本题为被动,值得关注的是 equip 的动词的过去分词是不规则变 化

【参考答案】35 which 【考查内容】定语从句 【试题解析】which 引导的非限制性定语从句,先行词是 his invention

【参考答案】36 myself 【考查内容】反身代词 【试题解析】by oneself 独自做某事 且前面句子主语是 I ,故填 myself

【参考答案】37 more appropriate 【考查内容】形容词的比较级结构 【试题解析】 ,给到的单词是形容词,考查的方向只有比较级及最高级,又因 far 只修饰比 较级,故答案为 more appropriate

【参考答案】38 has forced
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【考查内容】时态 【试题解析】 根据句子成分判断, 本句缺少谓语动词, 又因本句的时间状语为 in recent years , 且为主动,故本题答案为 has forced

【参考答案】39 urging 【考查内容】分词做状语 【试题解析】本题是分词做状语,逻辑主语是前面整个句子即 400 village shops closed,这件 事,导致的直接结果,故用主动形式

【参考答案】40 to 【考查内容】介词 【试题解析】solution 只和介词 to 搭配,此类名词还有 key ,answer 等

Section B
Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.

A. alert G. labels

B. classify H. moderation

C. commit I. relieve

D. delicately J. signals

E. gentle K. simply

F. impose

Let's say you've decided you want to eat more healthfully. However, you don't have time to carefully plan menus for meals or read food __41__ at the supermarket. Since you really__42__ yourself to a healthier lifestyle, a little help would come in handy, wouldn't it? This is where a "choice architect" can help__43__some of the burden of doing it all yourself. Choice architects are people who organize the contexts in which customers make decisions. For example, the person who decides the layout of your local supermarket-including which shelf the peanut butter goes on, and how the oranges are piled up—is a choice architect. Governments don't have to__44__healthier lifestyles through laws---for example, smoking bans. Rather, if given an environment created by a choice architect one that encourages us to choose what is best-we will do the right things. In other words, there will be designs that gently push customers toward making healthier choices, without removing freedom of choice. This idea combines freedom to choose with__45__hints from choice architects, who aim to help people live longer, healthier, and happier lives. The British and Swedish governments have introduced a so-called "traffic light system" to __46__foods as healthy or unhealthy. This means that customers can see at a glance how much fat, sugar, and salt each product contains__47__by looking at the lights on the package. A green light __48__that the amounts of the three nutrients are healthy; yellow indicates that the customer should be__49__; and red means that the food is high in at least one of the three nutrients and
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should be eaten in __50__. The customer is given important health information, but is still free to decide what to choose.

【参考答案】41 G 【试题解析】首先根据句子成分分析,本空填名词,为名词修饰名词,而且是在 supermarket 可以看到的东西,综合可知填 labels,食物标签

【参考答案】42 C 【试题解析】首先根据句子成分分析,本空填动词,且为谓语没有时态限制,为动词原形, 另外还要能和 to 搭配,故填 commit,commit oneself to sth “致力于”

【参考答案】43 I 【试题解析】首先根据句子成分分析,本空填动词原形,且宾语为 burden,故填 relieve,译 为“缓解复负担、压力”

【参考答案】44 F 【试题解析】首先根据句子成分分析,本空填动词原形,且宾语为 lifestyles , 主语为 governments,故填 impose“强加,强制推行”

【参考答案】45 E 【试题解析】首先根据句子成分分析,本空填形容词,修饰 hints,根据排除及句意意思可知, 应选 gentle

【参考答案】46 B 【试题解析】首先根据句子成分分析,本空填动词原形,且和介词 as 搭配,故填 classify, classify sth. as 把某物归类为...

【参考答案】47 K 【试题解析】首先根据句子成分分析,本空填副词,选项中副词只有一个 simply

【参考答案】48 J 【试题解析】首先根据句子成分分析,本空填动词,且为谓语动词,时态为三单形式,排除 选择只能选择 signals,signal 一般作名词用,此处做动词,较难,但抓住本题的三单形式,答
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题并不难

【参考答案】49 A 【试题解析】首先根据句子成分分析,本空填形容词或者动词过去分词,根据语义可知本题 填 alert,表达应该“警惕”

【参考答案】50 H 【试题解析】首先根据句子成分分析,本空填名词或者 V-ing,本题考的是一个搭配短语: in moderation “有节制的,适中的”

III. Reading Comprehension Section A Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. Research has shown that two-thirds of human conversation is taken up not with discussion of the cultural or political problems of the day, not heated debates about films we've just watched or books we've just finished reading, but plain and simple __51__. Language is our greatest treasure as a species, and what do we __52__ do with it? We gossip. About others' behaviour and private lives, such as who's doing what with whom, who's in and who's out-and why; how to deal with difficult __53__ situations involving children, lovers, and colleagues. So why are we keen on gossiping? Are we just natural __54__, of both time and words? Or do we talk a lot about nothing in particular simply to avoid facing up to the really important issues of life? It's not the case according to Professor Robin Dunbar. In fact, in his latest book, Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language, the psychologist says gossip is one of these really__55__issues. Dunbar __56__ the traditional view that language was developed by the men at the early stage of social development in order to organize their manly hunting activities more effectively, or even to promote the exchange of poetic stories about their origins and the supernatural. Instead he suggests that language evolved among women. We don't spend two-thirds of our time gossiping just because we can talk, argues Dunbar—__57__, he goes on to say, language evolved specifically to allow us to gossip. Dunbar arrived at his cheery theory by studying the __58__ of the higher primates (灵长类动 物)like monkeys. By means of grooming--cleaning the fur by brushing it, monkeys form groups with other individuals on whom they can rely for support in the event of some kind of conflict within the group or__59__ from outside it. As we human beings evolve from a particular branch of the primate family, Dunbar __60__ that at one time in our history we did much the same. Grouping together made sense because the bigger the group, the greater the __61__ it provided; on the other hand, the bigger the group, the greater the stresses of living close to others. Grooming helped to __62__ the pressure and calm everybody down.
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But as the groups got bigger and bigger, the amount of time spent in grooming activities also had to be __63__ to maintain its effectiveness. Clearly, a more __64__ kind of grooming was needed, and thus language evolved as a kind of vocal(有声的)grooming which allowed humans to develop relationship with ever-larger groups by exchanging information over a wider network of individuals than would be possible by one-to-one __65__ contact. 51. A. claim 【参考答案】C 【测量目标】上下文语义联系 【试题解析】根据下文可知,本文的 topic 为 gossip,下文复现较多 52. A. occasionally 【参考答案】B 【测量目标】文意理解 【试题解析】language 是一个我们人类所共有的,所以应该是“习惯性的”用语言干什么 53. A. social 【参考答案】A 【测量目标】文意理解 【试题解析】包含 children, lovers, and colleagues 的情景只能是 social situations,故本题选 A B. political C. historical D. cultural B. habitually C. independently D. originally B. description C. gossip D. language

54. A. admirers 【参考答案】D

B. masters

C. users

D. wasters

【测量目标】文意理解 【试题解析】 后文中提到 gossip 是 we talk a lot about nothing in particular , 也就是一种浪费, 所以本题不难得出答案:wasters ,既是时间又是语言的浪费者 55. A. vital 【参考答案】A 【测量目标】上下文理解把握 【试题解析】上文中有一句“It's not the case according to Professor Robin Dunbar.”由此可知 gossip 并不是大家所认为的那样,而是一件非常“严肃,重要”的事 56. A. confirms 【参考答案】B 【测量目标】上下文理解 【试题解析】后文有一个关键词“instead”,故上文并未 Dunbar 的观点,所以本题选 B rejects
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B. sensitive

C. ideal

D. difficult

B. rejects

C. outlines

D. broadens

57. A. for instance 【参考答案】C

B. in addition

C. on the contrary

D. as a result

【测量目标】上下文意理解 【试题解析】下文提到 he goes on to say, 所以上文也是 Dunbar 的观点,于一般传统观点所 不同的观点 58. A. motivation 【参考答案】D 【测量目标】上下文意理解 【试题解析】 grooming--cleaning the fur by brushing it 属于行为,所以本题答案为 : D behaviour 59. A. attack 【参考答案】A 【测量目标】上下文理解 【试题解析】上文有个单词 conflict,并且用 or 连接,所以此空要填 conflict 的一个近义词, 故选 A 60. A. recalls 【参考答案】C 【测量目标】文意理解 【试题解析】根据后面句子的意思可知,后面是对 Dunbar 观点的总结,故选 C 61. A. prospect 【参考答案】D 【测量目标】文意理解 【试题解析】本空所填词汇必须能做 provide 的宾语,其次根据意思可知:一个群组越大, 那么它所提供的保护就越强。 62. A. measure 【参考答案】D 【测量目标】文意理解及词语搭配 【试题解析】本题所填动词的宾语是 pressure,根据选项可知只有 ease“缓解,减轻”能与其 搭配 63. A. saved B. extended C. consumed
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B. appearance

C. emotion

D. behaviour

B. contact

C. inspection

D. assistance

B. denies

C. concludes

D. confesses

B. responsibility

C. leadership

D. protection

B. show

C. maintain

D. ease

D. gained

【参考答案】B 【测量目标】文意理解 【试题解析】根据文意可知:随着群组的壮大,为了保证有效性,清洁活动所以的时间应该 也要随之增加,故选 extend“延长” 64. A. common 【参考答案】B 【测量目标】文意理解 【试题解析】动物应该需要一个更加有效的清洁方式,故选 B 65. A. indirect 【参考答案】C 【测量目标】文意理解 【试题解析】通过语言交流,应该可以避免的是“身体上的接触”所以本题答案选择 C B. daily C. physical D. secret B. efficient C. scientific D. thoughtful

Section B
Directions: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read. (A) Most people agree that honesty is a good thing. But does Mother Nature agree? Animals can't talk, but can they lie in other ways? Can they lie with their bodies and behavior? Animal experts may not call it lying, but they do agree that many animals, from birds to chimpanzees, behave dishonestly to fool other animals. Why? Dishonesty often helps them survive. Many kinds of birds are very successful at fooling other animals. For example, a bird called the plover sometimes pretends to be hurt in order to protect its young. When a predator(猎食动 物)gets close to its nest, the plover leads the predator away from the nest. How? It pretends to have a broken wing. The predator follows the "hurt" adult, leaving the baby birds safe in the nest. Another kind of bird, the scrub jay, buries its food so it always has something to eat. Scrub jays are also thieves. They watch where others bury their food and steal it. But clever scrub jays seem to know when a thief is watching them. So they go back later, unbury the food, and bury it again somewhere else. Birds called cuckoos have found a way to have babies without doing much work. How? They don't make nests. Instead, they get into other birds' nests secretly. Then they lay their eggs and fly away. When the baby birds come out, their adoptive parents feed them. Chimpanzees, or chimps, can also be sneaky. After a fight, the losing chimp will give its hand to the other. When the winning chimp puts out its hand, too, the chimps are friendly again. But an animal expert once saw a losing chimp take the winner's hand and start fighting again. Chimps are sneaky in other ways, too. When chimps find food that they love, such as bananas,
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it is natural for them to cry out. Then other chimps come running. But some clever chimps learn to cry very softly when they find food. That way, other chimps don't hear them, and they don't need to share their food. As children, many of us learn the saying "You can't fool Mother Nature." But maybe you can't trust her, either. 66. A plover protects its young from a predator by______. A. getting closer to its young B. driving away the adult predator C. leaving its young in another nest D. pretending to be injured 【参考答案】D 【测量目标】细节把握 【试题解析】信息定位到,文章第 2 段第二句,可知答案为 D 67. By "Chimpanzees, or chimps, can also be sneaky" (paragraph 5), the author means______. A. chimps are ready to attack others B. chimps are sometimes dishonest C. chimps are jealous of the winners D. chimps can be selfish too 【参考答案】B 【测量目标】细节把握及推断 【试题解析】信息定位到文章第 5 段最后一句,从本句可知 chimps 有时也是很“狡猾的” , 固本题答案选 B 68. Which of the following is true according to the passage? A. Some chimps lower their cry to keep food away from others. B. The losing chimp won the fight by taking the winner's hand. C. Cuckoos fool their adoptive parents by making no nests. D. Some clever scrub jays often steal their food back. 【参考答案】A 【测量目标】细节题 【试题解析】信息定位到文章第 6 段最后一句,批对信息可知 A 为正确选项 69. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage? A. Do animals lie? B. Does Mother Nature fool animals? C. How do animals learn to lie? D. How does honesty help animals survive? 【参考答案】A 【测量目标】主旨大意 【试题解析】从文章的首段及末端可知本文主要讨论的是动物是否会撒谎 (B)

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Let's say you want to hit the gym more regularly this year. How do you make that happen? Consider putting the habit loop to use. Here's how it works: A habit is a 3-step process. First, there's a cue, something that tells your brain to operate automatically. Then there's a routine. And finally, a reward, which helps your brain learn to desire the behavior. It's what you can use to create-or break-habits of your own. Here's how to apply it: Choose a cue, like leaving your running shoes by the door, then pick. a reward-say, a piece of chocolate when you get home from the gym. That way, the cue and the reward become interconnected. Finally, when you see the shoes, your brain will start longing for the reward, which will make it easier to work out day after day. The best part? In a couple of weeks, you won't need the chocolate at all. Your brain will come to see the workout itself as the reward. Which is the whole point, right?

70. Which of the following best fits in the box with a “?” in THE HABIT LOOP? A. Pick a new cue. B. Form a new habit. C. Choose a new reward. D. Design a new resolution. 【参考答案】C 【测量目标】推理判断能力 【试题解析】指向这个框框的两个箭头的相同性在于它们都是关于 reward 的,所以并不难 得出答案为 C

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71. According to THE HABIT LOOP, you can stick to your plan most effectively by______. A. changing the routine B. trying it for a week C. adjusting your goal D. writing it down 【参考答案】D 【测量目标】细节定位 【试题解析】根据文章右边的表格最后一行的左边的框框里的内容可知 D 为正确答案 72. What's the purpose of putting the habit loop to use? A. To test out different kinds of cues. B. To do something as a habit even without rewards. C. To work out the best New Year's resolution. D. To motivate yourself with satisfactory rewards. 【参考答案】B 【测量目标】细节定位及推断 【试题解析】根据文章最后两句可知,这么做的最终目的是形成一种内化的习惯 73. “This year when I see the Harry Potter poster, I will read 30 pages of an English novel or an English newspaper in order to watch TV for half an hour." What is the cue in this resolution? A. The Harry Potter poster. B. Reading 30 pages of an English novel. C. An English newspaper. D. Watching TV for half an hour. 【参考答案】A 【测量目标】细节及推断 【试题解析】 定位到第二个小标题下的第一句, 通过类比可知, 本题的 cue 应该是 The Harry Potter poster.

(C) If you could be anybody in the world, who would it be? Your neighbour or a super star? A few people have experienced what it might be like to step into the skin of another person, thanks to an unusual virtual reality (虚拟现实) device. Rikke Wahl, an actress, model and artist, was one of the participants in a body swapping experiment at the Be Another lab, a project developed by a group of artists based in Barcelona. She swapped with her partner, an actor, using a machine called The Machine to Be Another and temporarily became a man. "As I looked down, I saw my whole body as a man, dressed in my partner's pants," she said. "That's the picture I remember best." The set-up is relatively simple. Both users wear a virtual reality headset with a camera on the top. The video from each camera is sent to the other person, so what you see is the exact view of your partner. If she moves her arm, you see it. If you move your arm, she sees it. To get used to seeing another person's body without actually having control of it, participants start by raising their arms and legs very slowly, so that the other can follow along. Eventually, this kind of slow synchronised(同步的)movement becomes comfortable, and participants really start to feel as though they are living in another person's body. Using such technology promises to alter people's behaviour afterwards-potentially for the
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better. Studies have shown that virtual reality can be effective in fighting racism-the bias(偏见) that humans have against those who don't look or sound like them. Researchers at the University of Barcelona gave people a questionnaire called the Implicit Association Test, which measures the strength of people's associations between, for instance, black people and adjectives such as good, bad, athletic or awkward. Then they asked them to control the body of a dark skinned digital character using virtual reality glasses, before taking the test again. This time, the participants' bias scores were lower. The idea is that once you've "put yourself in another's shoes" you're less likely to think ill of them, because your brain has internalised the feeling of being that person. The creators of The Machine to Be Another hope to achieve a similar result. "At the end of body swapping, people feel like holding each other in their arms," says Arthur Pointeau, a programmer with the project. "It's a really nice way to have this kind of experience. I would really, really recommend it to everyone." 74. The word "swapping" (paragraph 1) is closest in meaning to______. A. building B. exchanging C. controlling 【参考答案】B 【测量目标】猜测词义 【试题解析】根据文章可知“swapping”是对上文“step into the skin of another person”的解 释,由此可知答案应为:B 75. We can infer from the experiment at the Be Another lab that______. A. our feelings are related to our bodily experience B. we can learn to take control of other people's bodies C. participants will live more passionately after the experiment D. The Machine to Be Another can help people change their sexes 【参考答案】A 【测量目标】信息推断 【试题解析】 信息定位到文章第二, 三段, 其中 C 选项是易混淆选项, 它并不是在 Be Another lab 中,而是 Implicit Association Test 中 76. In the Implicit Association Test, before the participants used virtual reality glasses to control a dark skinned digital character, ______. A. they fought strongly against racism B. they scored lower on the test for racism C. they changed their behaviour dramatically D. they were more biased against those unlike them 【参考答案】D 【测量目标】细节理解 【试题解析】信息定位到文章第四段,倒数第二句,可知 A 为正确答案 77. It can be concluded from the passage that______. A. technology helps people realize their dreams B. our biases could be eliminated through experiments
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D. transplanting

C. virtual reality helps promote understanding among people D. our points of view about others need changing constantly 【参考答案】C 【测量目标】主旨大意概括 【试题解析】根据文章第四段第二句及最后一句可知,virtual reality 有助于人们之间的相互 理解

Section C
Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. More and more corporations are taking an interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR is made up of three broad layers. The most basic is traditional corporate charity work. Companies typically spend about 1% of pre-tax profits on worthy projects. But many feel that simply writing cheques to charities is no longer enough. In some companies, shareholders want to know that their money is being put to good use, and employees want to be actively involved in good works. Money alone is not the answer when companies come under attack for their behavior. Hence the second layer of CSR, which is a branch of risk management. Starting in the 1980s, with environmental disasters such as the explosion at Bhopal and the Exxon Valdez oil spill, industry after industry has suffered blows to its reputation. So, companies often responded by trying to manage the risks. They talk to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and to governments, create codes of conduct(行为准则) and devote themselves to more transparency(透明)in their operations. Increasingly, too. they, along with their competitors, set common rules to spread risks. All this is largely defensive, but there are also opportunities for those that get ahead of the game. The emphasis on opportunity is the third layer of CSR: the idea that it can help to create value. If approached in a strategic way, CSR could become part of a company's competitive advantage. That is just the sort of thing chief executives like to hear. The idea of "doing well by doing good" has become popular. Nevertheless, the business of trying to be good is bringing difficult questions to executives. Can you measure CSR performance? Should you be cooperating with NGOs and you?re your competitors? Is there any really competitive advantage to be had from a green strategy? Corporate social responsibility is now seen as a mainstream. Big companies want to tell the world about their good citizenship with their devotion to social responsibilities. Done badly, CSR is often just window-dressing and can be positively harmful. Done well, though, it is not some separate activity that companies do on the side, a corner of corporate life reserved for virtue(美 德) :it is just good business. (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS) 78. Both _________ in some companies find it no longer enough to simply donate money to charities. 【参考答案】shareholders and employees 【考查内容】细节定位 【试题解析】从文章第一段的最后一句可知本题答案
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79. Give one example of the defensive measures of risk management according to the passage. 【参考答案】Companies talk to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and to governments. / Companies create codes of conduct. / Companies devote themselves to more transparency in their operations. / Companies set common rules with their competitors to spread risks. 【考查内容】细节定位及筛选 【试题解析】信息定位到文章第三段第一句,在进行一下整合即可得到答案 80. With the emphasis on opportunity, the third layer of CSR is meant to_________. 【参考答案】create value 【考查内容】信息定位及筛选 【试题解析】信息定位到第四段,第二句,并不难得出答案:create value

81. According to the passage, "good business" (paragraph 6) means that corporations ________ while making profits. 【参考答案】take social responsibilities 【考查内容】信息理解及整合 【试题解析】定位到文章最后一段,基于对文本的理解可知本题答案

第 II 卷(共 47 分)
I. Translation
Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets.

1. 我习惯睡前听点轻音乐。(accustomed) 【考点分析】考查短语 be accustomed to sth. / doing sth. 【难点分析】轻音乐的翻译,可能有些孩子不一定能一下子反应出来为 light music 【参考例句】I'm accustomed to listening to some light music before sleep.

2. 将来过怎样的生活取决于你自己。(be up to) 【考点分析】考查短语含义 be up to 取决于 【难点分析】it 做形式宾主语引导的主语从句 【参考例句】It's up to you what kind of life you will lead in the future.

3. 没有什么比获准参加太空旅行项目更令人兴奋的了。(than) 【考点分析】考查 than 引导的比较状语从句
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【难点分析】获准“be allowed to do” 太空旅行项目“space travel program” 【参考例句】There is nothing more exciting than being allowed to take part in the space travel program.

4. 家长嘱咐孩子别在河边嬉戏,以免遭遇不测。(for fear) 【考点分析】考查 for fear that 引导的结果状语从句 【难点分析】遭遇不测“something terrible may happen” 【参考例句】Parents ask their kids not to play by the river for fear that something terrible might happen.

5. 虽然现代社会物资丰富,给予消费者更多的选择,但也使不少人变成购物狂。(turn) 【考点分析】考查短语 turn A into B 【难点分析】购物狂 crazy shoppers 【参考例句】 While modern society, rich in material resources, has given consumers more choices, it also turns many of them into crazy shoppers.

II. Guided Writing
Directions: Write an English composition in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese. 学校英语报正在酝酿改版,拟从现有的三个栏目(健康、娱乐、文化)中去除一个,并 从三个备选栏目(时尚、职业规划、读者反馈)中挑选一个纳入该报。假设你是该校学生程 飞,给校报编辑写一封电子邮件,表达你的观点。邮件须包括以下内容: 1. 你建议去除的栏目及去除的理由; 2. 你建议增加的栏目及增加的理由。 命题分析: 书信作文,无论从题材或者是话题上来说都不算难,大部分学生都可以做到有话可说,但是 关于增删的理由学生可能不一定能合理的展开, 以及这两部分的比例问题, 不可以过于偏重 某一个方面,而应该两方面都要照顾到,另外毕竟本身是邮件格式,结尾也要体现出邮件的 问题,但是如果简单地以“i am looking forward to your reply” 为结尾,未免显得太草率,而 且此类文章应该是不需要对方回信的。所以结尾部分应该表达一下对校英语报的支持及祝 愿,会更加恰当一些。

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上海

英语参考答案
第I卷

第一大题第 1 至第 10 小题,每题 1 分;第 11 至第 16 小题,每题 2 分:第 17 至第 24 小题, 每题 1 分。共 30 分。

1. A 11.C

2.D 12.D

3.B 13.B

4.A 14.C

5.B 15.A

6.D 16.B

7.A

8.C

9.C

10.B

17. conference

18. daylight

19. moving

20. overcrowded 24. keep questioning

21. implications and conclusions 22. reasoning 23. Figures 第二大题每小题 1 分。共 26 分。

25. where 30. what 36. myself 41. G 42. C

26. To earn 31. adapting

27. as soon as / as long as 32. did 33. an 38. has forced 45. E 46. B 47. K

28. exhausted 34. is equipped 39. urging 48. J 49. A

29. if 35. which 40. to 50. H

37. more appropriate 43.1 44. F

第三大题第 51 至 65 小题,每题 1 分;第“至”小题,每题 2 分;第 78 至 81 小题,每题 2 分。 共 47 分。

51. C 61. D 71.D

52. B 62. D 72.B

53. A 63. B 73.A

54. D 64. B 74.B

55. A 65. C 75.A

56. B 66. D 76.D

57. C 67. B 77.C

58. D 68. A

59. A 69. A

60. C 70. C

78. shareholders and employees 79. Companies talk to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and to governments. / Companies create codes of conduct. / Companies devote themselves to more transparency in their operations. / Companies set common rules with their competitors to spread risks. 80. create value 81. take social responsibilities 第 II 卷 I.翻译共 22 分。 1. I'm accustomed to listening to some light music before sleep. 2. It's up to you what kind of life you will lead in the future. 3. There is nothing more exciting than being allowed to take part in the space travel program. 4. Parents ask their kids not to play by the river for fear that something terrible might happen. 5. While modern society, rich in material resources, has given consumers more choices, it also turns many of them into crazy shoppers. II.写作共 25 分。

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听力音频文本:(校对版) I. Listening Comprehension Section A Directions: In Section A, you will hear ten short conversations between two speakers. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. The conversations and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a conversation and the question about it, read the four possible answers on your paper, and decide which 'one is the best answer to the question you have heard. 1. W: What can I do for you, sir? M: I want to report a theft, my briefcase was stolen. Q: Who is most probably the woman? 2. W: You will take care, won?t you? The roads are very very icy. M: I will drive very slowly, I promise. Q: How does the woman feel? 3. M: Morning, I have a reservation, the name is Blake Smith. W: OK, we?ve got a nice car ready. I?ll need to see your driver?s license and your credit card. Q: Where does the conversation most probably take place? 4. W: CCTV is reporting an enormous flood now, look at those people on the roof! M: I hope that doesn?t cause much damage. Q: What are the two speakers talking about? 5. W: Would you help me clean the backyard today? M: Sure, I?m picking Jena from the railway station at three, but I will help you as soon as I get back. Q: What will the man do first? 6. W: The vase is amazing, but it?s a bit more than I want to spend. M: Maybe you can get a better price, it can?t hurt to ask. Q: What does the man suggest the woman do? 7. W: My computer is broken down, could I use yours to write a chemistry paper? M: Sorry, I?m in the middle of revising my report. You know the computer lab is still open. Q: What does the man imply the woman should do? 8. W: I?ve declined their offer to exhibit some of my paintings in this gallery. M: Are you kidding? Any art student I know would die to have an exhibition here. Q: How does the man feel on hearing the woman?s decision? 9. M: You are not planning to transfer to a different university next year, are you? W: If I were, you?d be the first to know. Q: What does the woman imply? 10. W: Did you read the editorial in the newspaper about the mayor?s speech? M: Sure I did, but I think they twisted the meaning of what he said. Q: What does the man say of the editorial? Section B Directions: In Section B, you will hear two short passages, and you will be asked three questions on each of the passages. The passages will be read twice, but the questions will be spoken only once. When you hear a question, read the four possible answers on your paper and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard. Questions 11 through 13 are based on the following passage. About 70 miles northeast of Vancouver, it?s one of Canada?s most beautiful tourist regions. Visitors come to enjoy fishing, skiing or the splendid mountain scenery. Over 20 years ago, Cursty
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Bone, a successful business woman came here and founded Paradise Reach--- a cabin park, she said,” I want to live somewhere where everybody knows everybody else. And all your problems are shared. Paradise Reach is now home to 25 families. Each family owns their own small cabin, but they share ownership of the park and the common facilities. This is a real living community, and residents aren?t allowed to use their cabins as a holiday home. The heart of the Paradise Reach Community is a large house. Shared meals take place three times a week. And once a month, there is a meeting, where important decisions are made. Families can sell their homes if they want to leave. But the whole community must vote on new families before they are allowed to join. “Keeping the community together is hard work”, says Cursty, “Everybody has to take responsibility for the day-to-day running of the community, but it seems that there is no shortage of families who want to join. There are 75 on the waiting list.” Questions: 11. How many families are living in Paradise Reach now? 12. What is special about Paradise Reach? 13. What is the passage mainly about? Questions 14 through 16 are based on the following news. It?s 3 P.M. Time for news from world medicine. Does sitting make you sad? Australian researchers found that middle aged women who sat for over 7 hours a day or 47% more likely to show signs of depression than those who sat for 4 hours or fewer. Those who were engaged in no physical activity were 26% more likely to have symptoms of depression 3 years later than those who exercised regularly. Sitting for long periods has also been linked to heart disease. How can you detect a liar through text message? Watch for a delayed response. When college students were asked to tell a lie during an interview with a computer, they took 10% longer on average to send the message, and they did more editing than usual. Can marriage beat cancer? Married people were 20% less likely to die from the disease than those who were unmarried, according to a Harvard study of more than 730,000 people. They were also more likely to get the disease detected at an earlier stage and receive proper treatment. A husband or a wife can urge you to see medical help and support you during tough medical therapy, radiation and other treatments. Questions: 14. Who were mostly likely to suffer from depression according to Australian researchers? 15. How did students behave when they told a lie during an interview with a computer? 16. What is the third piece of news mainly about?

Section C Directions: In section C, you will hear two longer conversations. The conversations will be read twice. After you hear each conversation, you are required to fill in the numbered blanks with the information you have heard. Write your answers on your answer sheet. Blanks 17 through 20 are based on the following conversation. W: Excuse me, I?m Linda Lee from the Airport Research Division. May I ask you a few questions about the environment and facilities here? M: OK. W:Are you on a business trip? M: Yes, I?m heading off for a conference in London.
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W: What do you like most about the airport environment? M: Well, I really appreciate the daylight? W: Daylight? M: Yes, the windows here make it seem as if you are outside. Another thing I like is the moving walkways. You don?t have to walk for miles to the boarding gate. W: I see, anything you don?t like? M: En.., the shops are often overcrowded, there is not enough space to move around comfortably. And also I suppose the trolleys are too small. W: Well, thanks for your time. Complete the form. Write ONE WORD for each answer. Blanks 21through 24 are based on the following conversation. W: Professor King, what exactly is critical thinking? M: Well, when you read critically, you should assess the writer?s ideas and think about the implications and conclusions of what the writer is saying. W: Can you give me an example? M: When you read an academic text, first, you should identify the argument, and work out the writer?s main line of reasoning. W: Ok, what then? M: Try to analyze and criticize the argument. W: I see, that?s why you often ask whether the argument is presented in a logical way. M: Right, then assess the evidence the writer gives you. That maybe in the form of figures, survey results, examples, etc. W: How about the writer?s conclusions? M: Ask yourself if they are supported by the evidence. W: Got it. Thanks, Professor King. M: Remember, the key to critical thinking is to read actively and keep asking yourself questions rather than just accepting. Complete the form. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

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