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【2014备考】2013高考英语真题+模拟新题分类汇编:K单元 江苏、安徽


K 单元江苏、安徽
K [2013· 安徽卷] 阅读下面短文,根据所读内容在表格中的空白处填入恰当的单词。 注意:每个空格只填一个单词。 Aristotle once wrote that “happiness is a state of activity”. In other words, whether you're seeking life-long satisfaction or a few moments of good cheer, you've got to move forward. We'v e interviewed the experts and found five steps to take toward a sunny mood(心情): Over a 30-year period, University of Illinois researchers asked nearly 120,000 people how income, education, political participation, volunteer activities and close relationships affected their happiness. Reported Newsweek's Sharon Begley on the findings, “The highest levels of happiness are found with the most stable and satisfying relationships.” Singing aloud, talking to a stranger, raising your hand: all may increase a feeling of happiness, according to a study from Wake Forest University. Participants(参与者)followed the development of their moods for two weeks and reported feeling happier when they were more outgoing and less happy when reserved or withdrawn. The editors of forbes.com gave $5 or $20 to 46 strangers by chance. Half the group was told to spend the money on themselves, while the other half was told to spend it on others. Those who'd shared the wealth felt much happier at the end of the day than those who'd spent it on themselves. There was no difference in happiness between those who spent $5 or $20, suggesting that it's not how much money you spend, but how you spend it, that inspires the spirit. Studies from the Positive Psychology Center showed that discouraged people who wrote down three good things that happened to them each day for six months reported an improved attitude. Drinking water really can help keep you cheerful. A small 2012 study from the University of Connecticut suggested that even slight dehydration(脱水) affected the moods of its female participants. Title Introduction The findings of 78.________ Some 79.________ toward happiness · Value your relationships · 81.________ yourself ·Spend money on others · 83.________ on the posi tive ·Drink water Conclusion ·The 80.________ happiness lies in the most stable and satisfying relationships. ·You can gain happiness by singing aloud or talking to others.21 世纪教育网 ·Your spirit will be inspired by 82.________ the wealth. · Your attitude would be improved when you fix your attention on good things. ·If a woman takes in enough wa ter, her 84.________ of happiness may remain. Happiness can be found if all 85.________ have been done. 76.________ for Happiness

You will move 77.________ in the course of finding happiness.

【要点综述】 什么是幸福?幸福在哪里?幸福是一种感觉,只要你用心寻找,你就能感觉到;感觉到了,便 是拥有。珍惜拥有的全部,就是最幸福的人。 76.Look(ing)/Search(ing)/Seek(ing) 文章主要告诉我们怎样找到幸福。而 search for/look for 均为习惯搭配,表示 “寻找”。21 世纪教育网 77.forward/ahead/on 从文章首段第二句“?you've got to move forward”可知答案。 78.experts/researchers 从文章首段最后一句“We've interviewed the experts and found?”可知,下面讲述的是这 些专家们的发现。 79.steps/ways 从文章首段最后一句“five steps to take toward?”可知答案。

80.greatest 由文章第二段最后一句可知填 greatest。注意此处需要转换一下表述方法。 81.Express 第三段中的“Singing aloud, talking to a stranger, raising your hand”说的都是要表达自己,故填 Express。 此处是进行总结和概括。 82.sharing 由文章第四段中的“spend it on others”和“shared the wealth”可知答案。注意介词 by 后用动词-ing 形 式。 83.Focus/Concentrate 由第五段中“discouraged people who wrote down three good things?”可知,要多朝积极的 方面想。此外,focus on 与 concentrate on 为习惯搭配。注意此处需要转换一下表述方法。 84.feeling/mood/sense 由最后一段中“?keep you cheerful”和“the moods of?”可知,这里说的是幸福这种感 觉。此处是进行总结和概括。 85. these/those 前面讲述了让自己幸福起来的五大步骤, 做到“这些(或那些)”, 你就能幸福。 故填 these 或 those。 此处不仅需要概括总结,还要遵循上下文的语境。 K [2013· 江苏卷] 请认真阅读下列短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个最恰当的单词。 注意:每个空格只填一个单词。 Quiet Virtue:The Conscientious The everyday signs of conscientiousness(认真尽责)—being punctual,careful in doing work,self-disciplined,and scrupulous(一丝不苟的)in attending to responsibilities—are typical characteristics of the model organizational citizen,the people who keep things running as they should.They follow the rules, help out, are concerned about the people they work and with.It's the conscientious worker who helps newcomers or updates people who return after an absence,who gets to work on time and never abuses sick leaves, who al ways gets things done on deadline. Conscientiousness is a key to success in any field.In studies of job performance,outstanding effectiveness for almost all jobs,from semi-skilled labor to sales and management,depends on conscientiousness.It is particularly important for outstanding performance in jobs at the lower levels of an organization:the secretary whose message taking is perfect,the delivery truck driver who is always on time. Among sales representatives for a large American car manufacturer, those who were most conscientious had the largest volume of sales.Conscientiousness also offers a buffer(缓冲)against the threat of job loss in today's constantly changing market,because employees with this quality are among the most valued.For the sales representatives,their level of conscientiousness mattered almost as much as their sales in determining who stayed on. There is an air around highly conscientious people that makes them seem even better than they actually are.Their reputation for dependability influences managers' evaluations of their work,giving them higher evaluations than objective measures of their performance would predict. But conscientiousness in the absence of social skills can lead to problems.Since conscientious people demand so much of themselves,they can hold other people to their own standards,and so be overly judgmental when others don't show the same high levels of model behavior.Factory workers in Great Britain and the United States who were extremely conscientious,for example, tended to criticize co-workers even about failures tha t seemed unimportant to those they criticized, which damaged their relationships. When conscientiousness takes the form of living up to expectations, it can discourage creativity. In creative professions like art or advertising,openness to wild ideas and spontaneity(自发性)are scarce and in demand.Success in such occupations calls for a balance, however; without enough conscientiousness to follow through, people become mere dreamers, with nothing to show for their imaginativeness.

【要点综述】 本文是一篇说明文。通常来说,尽职尽责是一个很大的优点——工作认真负责、守时自律、帮助别 人等,但同时也有它的缺点,如阻碍创造性,对同事要求过严而影响人际关系等。 71.strict 归纳总结题。由第一段中讲述的尽职尽责的人的特点“?being punctual, careful in doing work, self- disciplined, and scrupulous (一丝不苟的) in attending to responsibilities?”可知,他们守时、工作细心、自律、一丝不苟, 这些都说明他们对自己要求很严格。 72. helpful/good 信息转换题。 第一段中的“It's the conscientious worker who helps newcomers or updates people?” 说明,尽职尽责的人是乐于助人(helpful)或者对别人好(good)的。 73.Functions/Roles/Importance/Significance 74.running/working/going/operating/functioning 归纳总结题。文章的第二、三、四段讲述了尽职尽责的好处和重 要性。 75.performance(s) 直接信息题。从第二段第二、三句可知答案。 76.fired/dismissed/jobless 信息转换题。从第三段的“Conscientiousness also offers a buffer against the threat of job loss in today's constantly changing market?”可知,尽职尽责的人不容易失去工作,此处需要转化为动词,即可得到答 案。 77. problems/troubles 直接信息题。 从第五段的第一句话“But conscientiousness in the absence of social skills can lead to problems.”可知答案。 78.higher/subjective/unfair/unjust/prejudiced 直接信息题。从第四段的“?giving them higher evaluations than objective measures of?”可知答案。 79. tense/damaged/poor/bad 归纳总结题。 由第五段中的 “?overly judgmental?, tended to criticize co-workers?” 可知,尽职尽责的人对同事苛求,可能更容易批评同事,从而造成人际关系紧张。 80.discourage/affect/damage 直接信息题。由第六段的“?it can discourage creativity.”可知答案。21 世纪教育网 21 世纪教育网 (一)[2013· 江苏省涟水中学期末考试] One reason Americans eat so many calories is that we tend to eat large portions(分量). Studies find that hamburgers and fries are generally offered in serving sizes two to five times larger than the appropriate meal size. Researchers find we usually clean our plates no matter how high they're piled, even if we already feel satisfied. See the suggestions below to further master the fine art of sizing up(估量) your snacks and suppers. Extremely large portions are one possible reason Americans continue getting fatter even as the percentage of our total calories from fat has gone down in recent years. Fortunately, portions are relatively simple to control because it's easier to count cookies than calories or grams of fat. Pre?picture portions. Use familiar objects to picture how much you should eat of a food before you pick up your fork or

spoon. For example, a half cup of low- granola is about the size of your fist. A half cup of low- ice cream equals half an fat fat orange. Use a smaller dish. This tip might sound ridiculous, but it works. First and most obvious is that you can't put as much food on, say, a salad plate. But psychologically, you're just not as prone to eat as heartily and quickly if your plate will be empty in 45 seconds. Have raw vegetables at every meal. Raw cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots, and pep pers have few calories and lots of nutrients. A plate of them in the middle of the table almost always gets eaten up, cutting down appetite for the more caloriedense meat. Start your meal with soup. Studies show that a bowl of soup at the start of the meal reduces overall meal consumption, since they are lowest in calories and highest in nutrients. Manage your fork. After every bite of food, put your fork down. Don't pick it up until you have thoroughly chewed and swallowed the previous bite. The goal is both to slow down your eating and to eat less. Remember: Your body needs 20 minutes of digestion before it sends signals to your brain that you are no longer hungry. Helpful Hints on How to Get a Handle on the Howmuch Factor · Hamburgers and fries served in restaurants are generally two to five times the 1.________of the proper ones. ·Americans usually clean their plates 2.________high they're piled, even if they are already satisfied. Americans continue getting fatter even as they have eaten 3.________ calories from fat in recent years. · 5.________ objects to imagine how much Use you should eat of a food before a meal. · Use a smaller dish and thus eat 6.________. · Have raw vegetables at every meal to cut down 7.________ for the more caloriedense meat. · Start your meal with 8.________ to reduce meal consumption.[来源:21 世纪教育网] · Put down your fork at 9.________ to make sure your brain receives 10.________ that you're full.

Facts

Effects

4.________

1. size 根据第一段第二句可知,平时店里的快餐的量是正常需求量的两到五倍。 2. however 根据第一段中“?no matter how high they're piled?”可知用 however=no matter how。 3. fewer 根据第二段中“?even as the percentage of our total calories from fat has gone down in recent years.”可知 是摄入的卡路里量已经下降,因此用 fewer。 4. Suggestions 根据右栏表格内容可知是作者提出的建议,因此用 suggestions。注意首字母大写。 5. familiar 根据第三段中“Use familiar objects to picture how much you should eat?”可知填 familiar。[来源:21 世 纪教育网] 6. slowly 根据第四段中“?you're just not as prone to eat as heartily and quickly if your plate will be empty in 45 seconds.”可知你不会吃得很快,因此用 slowly。 7. appetite 根据第五段中“?cutting down appetite for the more calorie?dense meat.”可推知生菜会减少食欲。 8. soup 根据第六段中“Start your meal with soup.”可知用 soup。 9. intervals 根据最后一段中“After every bite of food, put your fork down.”和“Your body needs 20 minutes of digestion before it sends signals to your brain that you are no longer hungry.”可知每吃完一口就放下叉子,直到完全吃完这口,因为

大脑在 20 分钟后才能接收到吃饱的信号。at intervals“间或,时而”,固定短语。 10. signals 此处表示“接收到吃饱的信号”,故用 signals。 Reasoned discussions allow students to use their own 9.________ to drive the intellectual and academic work of understanding phenomena and reconcile their 10.________ and knowledge with science ideas. They are also fundamentally scientific.

The author's reasons for having reasoned discussions

(二) [2013· 江苏省盱眙中学期末考试] If I have to choose three critical factors in achieving success in my career, these would be my choices—belief, action and discipline. Belief In order to achieve success in your career, you have to first believe. You need to believe that you can achieve it. You need to have faith in your goals and your path to success. Once your mind is convinced that you can do it, everything is possible. Belief is the “mind and heart” part of the three critical success factors. Action Nothing moves until you do something. Believing alone is not going to achieve anything. It must be followed up with concrete action. Your plan for career success is nothing unless you act upon it wholeheartedly. When you act upon what you believe, there is focus. And there is energy. That energy propels (drives forward) you to greater heights. Action is the “hands and legs” part of the three critical success factors. Discipline Action in itself is not enough to increase the chances of success. But discipl ined action would do that. One of the main reasons why people fail is that there is no discipline in their action. They give themselves excuses when they cannot consistently go ahead with their plans. You need some form of sacrifice(牺牲)if you want to achieve success in your career. That sacrifice takes discipline. Discipline also ensures that you c an be persistent(坚持的), especially when you're faced with challenges after challenges in your journey to success. Discipline is the “untiring, determined hands and legs” part of the three critical success factors. When what you think, feel and do become one, there is nothing that can stop you from achieving career success. Topic How can you 1.________in your career? 2.________ ◆You need to feel 3.________ about your goals and your path to success. ◆ Once you are convinced that you can do it, nothing is 4.________. ◆ You must act on your plan for career success 5.________ and soul. ◆ You must devote all your 6.________so that you can reach greater heights. ◆ It means that you must 7.________yourself. ◆ You need to 8.________ something when you gain something. ◆ You must be persistent when you are faced with 9.________. If you combine all the three factors, you are sure to achieve career success.

Belief

Action

Discipline

10.________

1. succeed 根据第一段“If I have to choose three critical factors in achieving success in my career?”中的 achieving success 可知,这里用动词 succeed。 2. Factors 根据第一段中的 three critical factors 可知此处用 factors,注意首字母大写。

3. confident 根据第二段的标题 Belief 以及下面的段落中的前三句可知此处用 confident,意为“自信的”。 4. impossible 根据标题 Belief 下的段落中第四句“Once your mind is convinced that you can do it, everything is possible.”可知此处用 impossible。 5. heart 根据标题 Action 下的段落中第四句“Your plan for career success is nothing unless you act upon it wholeheartedly.”中的 wholeheartedly 可知此处用 heart。heart and soul“全心全意地”,固定短语。 6. energy 根据标题 Action 下的段落中第六、七句“And there is energy. That energy propels (drives forward) you to greater heights.”可知答案为 energy。 7. control 根据标题 Discipline 可知意为“必须控制自己”,即 contr ol。 8. sacrifice 根据标题 Discipline 下的段落第五句“You need some form of sacrifice if you want to achieve success in your career.”可知此处用 sacrifice。 9. challenges 根据标题 Discipline 下的段落倒数第二句中“?especially when you're faced with challenges after challenges in your journey to success.”可知用 challenges。 10. Conclusion 最后一段是得出的结论,故用 conclusion。注意首字母大写。 (三)[2013· 扬州中学 1 月月考] Back to School: Why Grit (毅力) Is More Important than Good Grades? The back- school season is upon us, and once again, parents all over the country have loaded their kids' backpacks up towith snack packs and school supplies. It's a good moment to reflect on what else we should be giving our kids as they head off to school. American parents are feeling particularly anxious about that question this year. The educational process feels more than ever like a race, one that starts in preschool and doesn't end until your child is admitted to the perfect college. Most parents are more worried than they need to be about their children's grades, test scores and IQ. And what we don't think about enough is how to help our children build their character—how to help them develop skills like perseverance, grit, optimism, conscientiousness, and selfcontrol, which together do more to determine success than SAT scores or IQ. There is growing evidence that our anxiety about our children's school performance may actually be holding them back from learning some of these valuable skills. If you're concerned only with a child's GPA, then you will likely choose to minimize the challenges the child faces in school. With real challenge comes the risk of real failure. And in a competitive academic environment, the idea of failure can be very scary, to students and parents alike. But experiencing failure is a critical pa rt of building character. Recent research by a team of psychologists found that adults who had experienced little or no failure growing up were actually less happy and confident than those who had experienced a few significant setbacks in childhood. “Overcoming those obstacles,” the researchers assumed, “could teach effective coping skills, help engage social support networks, create a sense of mastery over past adversity, and foster beliefs in the ability to cope successfully in the future.” By contrast, when we protect our children from every possible failure—when we call their teachers to get an extension on a paper; when we urge them to choose only those subjects they're good at—we are denying them those same characterbuilding experiences. As the psychologists Madeline Levine and Dan Kindlon have written, that can lead to difficulties in adolescence and young adulthood, when overprotected young people finally confront real problems on their own and don't know how to overcome them. In the classroom and outside of it, American parents need to encourage children to take chances, to challenge themselves, to risk failure. In the meantime, giving our kids room to fail may be one of the best ways we can help them succeed. 21 世纪教育网 Back to School: Why Grit Is More Important than Good Grades? Common phenomena ◆Parents 1.________ America load their kids' backpacks up with snacks and school supplies. ◆Many American parents don't 2.________ enough importance to their kids' character building. The writer's 3._______ _ ◆Parents should pay more attention to their

kids' character building. Evidence and 4.________ findings ◆Parents' anxiety about their kids' performance may 5.________ them from learning some valuable skills. ◆Parents concerned only with a kid's GPA have a 6.________ to minimize the challenges the child faces. ◆Adults who have experienced a few significant setbacks in childhood are 7.________ and more confident than those who haven't. ◆Denying kids' characterbuilding experiences can 8.________ in difficulties in adolescence and young adulthood. The writer's suggestions[来源:21 世纪教育网] ◆9.________ kids to be risktakers. ◆Give kids room to experience 10.________. 1. throughout/across/around 根据第一段第一句“The back- school season is upon us, and once again, parents all toover the country have loaded their kids' backpacks up with snack packs and school supplies.”中的信息词 all over 可知此处用 throughout/across/around。 2. attach 根据第二段第三、四句可知大多数美国父母并没有足够地重视孩子个性的塑造,故此处短语 attach importance to“重视”符合题意,即用 attach。 3. view/opinion/viewpoint 根据第二段最后一句“And what we don't think about enough is how to help our children build their character?”可知此处表示作者自己的观点,故 view/opinion/viewpoint 正确。 4. research 文章第三段提到了 evidence,再根据第四段第二句“Recent research by a team of psychologists found?”中的信息词 research 可知答案。 5. discourage/prevent/hinder/stop/keep 根据第三段第一句“There is growing evidence that our anxiety about our children's school performance may actually be holding them back from learning some of these valuable skills.”中的信息词 hold?back 可知此处表示“阻止”之意,故可用短语 discourage/prevent/hinder/stop/keep?from doing sth 表示。 6. tendency 根据第三段第二句 “If you're concerned only with a child's GPA, then you will likely choose to minimize the challeng es the child faces in school.” 中的信息词 likely 可知,此处短语 have a tendency to “有??的倾向”符合题 意。 7. happier 根据第四段第二句“Recent research by a team of psychologists found that adults who had experienced little or no failure growing up were actually less happy and confident than those who had experienced a few significant setbacks in childhood.”中的信息词 less happy 可知,此处用 happier。 8. result 根据第五段第二句“As the psychologists Madeline Levine and Dan Kindlon have written, that can lead to difficulties in adolescence and young adulthood, when overprotected young people finally confront real problems on their own and don't know how to overcome them.”中的信息词 lead to 可知,此处同义短语 result in“导致”正确。 9. Encourage/Inspire 根据最后一段第一句“In the classroom and outside of it, American parents need to encourage children to take chances, to challenge themselves, to risk failure.”中的信息词 encourage 可知答案。 10. failure 根据最后一段最后一句“In the meantime, giving our kids room to fail may be one of the best ways we can help them succeed.”中的信息词 fail 可知此处用其名词形式 failure。



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