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Book 3 Module 1 Europe ●重点单词 1.across prep.横过;穿过 2.continental adj.大陆的;大洲的→continent n.大洲 3.face vt.面向;面对→facial adj.面部的 4.range n.山脉 5.situated adj.坐落(某处)的;位于(某处)的→situation n.状况,位臵 6.symbol n.象征;符号→symbolic adj.象征性的 7.located adj.位于→locate v.位于→location n.位臵;场所 8.project n.计划;项目;工程 9.civilization n.文明→civilize v.使文明;有修养→civilized adj.有教养的 10.ancient adj.古代的 11.opposite prep.在……对面 12.sign vt.签署→signature n.签名 13.agreement n.协议;契约→agree v.同意→disagreement n.(反义词)不同意 14.govern vt.统治;治理→government n.政府→governor n.统治者 15.geographical adj.地理的→geography n.地理学 16.feature n.特点 ●重点短语 1.off the coast of… 在离海岸不远的地方 2.be located/situated in 位于 3.be famous for 4.be known as 5.work on 因……而闻名 作为……而闻名 工作;干……活 be well known to sb. 为某人所熟知 on the coast of …在……海岸上

6.because of 因为 as a result of 由于;因为 owing to 由于;因为; due to 因为 7.ever since 自从……以来 since then 从那时起一直到现在 8.refer to 9.in terms of 11.little by little 意指,涉及 据……;依照…… according to 根据;按照 逐渐地 step by step 一点一点地 one by one 一个一个地

10.on (the) one hand …, on the other hand… 一方面…….,另一方面…… 12.with a population of 有……人口 13.have...in _common with 与……有共同之处 14.have control over/of 对……加以控制 take/gain control of 取得对……的控制 keep control of 保持对……的控制 in control of 管理

under the control 在……控制之下 lost control of 失去对……的控制 beyond control 无法控制 in the control of 失去控制

15. of all time 有史以来 all the time 一直;始终 at times 有时;偶尔 at one time 一度;曾经 16. in common 共同 common practice 惯例 by comparison 相比之下 Word study: 1. range n. 排;连续;山脉;(变化等的)幅度;(知识等的)范围;区域;射程 v. 排列,使排队;(动植物)分布;(在一定范围内)变化,变动 Between France and Spain is another mountain range – the Pyrenees. a wide range of 广泛的…;各种各样的 a full range of 各种…… within/in range of 在……的范围内 beyond/out of one?s range 超越了…… 的范围 range from...to... 在……范围内变动,包括(由……到……)之间的各类事物 range between...and... 在……和……范围内变动 range over 范围涉及 range…in rows 把……排成队 eg. (1)The child was now out of her range of vision.这孩子已经走出了她的视线。 (2)There is a full range of activities for children.这里有给孩子们提供的各种活动。 (3)Estimates of the damage range between $ 1 million and $ 5 million. 估计损失在100万到500万美元之间。 (4)She has had a number of different jobs, ranging from chef to swimming instructor. 她做过许多不同的工作,从厨师到游泳教练。 2. situated = located adj. 坐落(某处)的;位于(某处的) situate vt. 使位于,使处于 situation n. 情形;境遇; (建筑物等的)位臵;形势,立场 be situated on / in/ at… 位于…… 的;处于……地位(境遇、状态)的 be located at/ in/ on…位于…… 的;处于……位臵 be badly/well situated 境况困难/良好 be in an embarrassing situation 处境尴尬 the international situation 国际(国内)形势 feel out the situation 摸清底细 (情况) location n. 位臵,场所,所在地 on location 拍摄外景的,拍摄外景中 eg. (1)The school is situated in the suburbs. 这所学校位于郊外。 (2)He was very badly situated. 他处于困境中。 (3)I am now in a difficult situation. 我现在处境困难。 辨析:situate /locate

in common with 和……相同 common sense 常识 compare notes 交换意见 in comparison with/to… 与…… 相比

17. compare with/to… 与……相比较

save the situation 挽回局势

(1) be situated on/ in / at… 与 be located on/ in / at…意义相同,都可表示“位于…的,坐落 在…的”意思 Where will the school be situated /located? (2) situated 做为形容词用时,可用于描述人或事物,意思是“处于……境况” 。 --- How are you situated? 你情况如何? --- Very badly. 坏极了 (3) locate 还可以表示“确定某物的位臵,找出……的场所”之意。 We located the island on the map. 3. symbol n. 象征;符号 The most popular place for tourists is the Eiffel Tower, the famous symbol of Paris. Generally, we use X as the symbol for an unknown quantity. symbol /sign/ signal (1) symbol指作为象征意义或表达某种深邃意义的特殊事物。 (2) sign指人们公认的事物的记号,也可指某种情况的征兆。 (3) signal指为某一目的而有意义的信号。 4. opposite prep. 在……对面 adj. 相对的,对面的,对立的,相反的 n. 反义词,对立的事物,相反的人 The people sitting opposite us looked very familiar. The library is on the opposite side of the road from our school. opposition n. 反对,敌对,相反 be opposite from 与……相反;不相容 just the opposite 恰恰相反 in opposition to sb./sth. 反对…… eg.(1)The people sitting opposite us looked familiar. 坐在我们对面的人看上去面 (2)Light is opposite to shadow. 光亮与阴暗是相反的。 (3)Mary isn't shy at all—just the opposite in fact.玛丽一点都不腼腆,事实上正好相反。 (4)We sat opposite,talking. 我们相对而坐,说着话。 5. head n. 领导;领袖;头; v. 带领;向……方向前进 In the United Kingdom, for example, the head of state is a king or queen. When the engine caught fire, I just lost my head. 当 head 意为“领导;领袖;头;头脑”时是可数名词;但作为量词,表示“多少头”时 不可用复数。 keep one’s head 保持冷静 a clear/cool head 冷静/清醒的头脑 lose one’s head 头脑不清醒,慌张 hold one’s head high 昂首挺胸 head for/ toward…朝……;向……

adv. 在对面

oppositely adv. 相对地,对立地 be opposite to 在……对面;与……相反 be opposed to…反对……; 反抗……

from head to foot 从头到脚;全身;完全

6. In terms of size and population, how big is the European Union compared with China?

(a). in terms of=with regard to/according to/in the light of 据……;依照……;在……方面 The job is great in teams of salary, but it has its disadvantages. come to terms 和解;妥协;让步 in the long (short) term 从长远(眼前)来看 in any terms 无论如何,在任何情况下 be in terms 在谈判(交涉)中 keep on good (friendly) terms with sb. 与某人保持良好(友好)关系,交朋友 keep terms with sb. 与某人交往;与某人保持友好关系 be on equal terms 关系平等 on one’s terms 依照某人的条件 eg. (1)It is difficult to express it in terms of science. 要用科学的字眼来表达它是很难的。 (2)The figures are expressed in terms of a percentage.那些数字是以百分数表示的。 (3) In terms of money, her loss was small.从金钱的角度来讲,她的损失是很小的。 7. little by little 一点一点地,慢慢地,逐渐地 bit by bit 一点一点地 quite a little[美口]大量,丰富 little more than 和……无差别(一样) by little and little=little by little 逐渐地,一点点地 a little 一点儿 a bit of 一点儿 a little bit quite a bit 少量的 颇多 a little more /less 有点多/少 come to terms with 甘心忍受 be on good/bad terms with 与……关系很好(坏)

eg. (1)Little by little things returned to normal. 情况逐渐恢复正常。 (2)Graham was more than _a little_frightened by what he had seen. 格雷厄姆被他看到的事吓了一大跳。 【拓展】 :not a little/not a bit (1)not a little 许多;很=very She was __not a little___ tired after the long journey. 经过长途跋涉,她非常累。 (2)not a bit 一点儿也不=not at all I?m _not a bit_tired now.我现在一点儿也不累。 Really, David is _not a bit__ like his brother as far as generosity is concerned. 的确,就慷慨大方这一点来说,大卫一点也不像他哥哥。 8. last: vi 持续 The rainy season lasted until July. 耐久 The coat lasts well. vt. 熬过…时候;度过,足够维持 The food will last us three days. 9. influence vt. 影响;对……起作用;左右 n. 影响;作用;影响力 have an influence on sb./sth. 对……产生影响 have influence over sb./ sth.对……有影响力

under the influence of 受……影响 ②compare A to B 把 A 比作 B

under the influence 喝醉的 ③compare A with B 把 A 和 B 作比较 at first hand 第一手地,直接地 on every hand 四面八方,四周

10. compare v. 关于 compare 短语: ①compared with 和…比较 (作状语, 放于句首或句末) 11.on the other hand 另一方面;反过来说 at hand 在手边,在附近;即将到来,即将发生 at second hand 第二手的;间接的;旧的;用过的 at any hand=in any hand 在任何情况下;无论如何 eg. (1) He is an able man, but on the other hand he demands too much of people. 他是一个能干的人,但是另一方面,他对人要求太多了。 (2)On the one hand he loves her very much; 【拓展】 :on the other hand / on the contrary (1)on the other hand 表示―另一方面‖,说明同一件事的两个方面,并不表示相反的对立面。 多用以引出相互矛盾的观点、意见等。 (2)on the contrary 表示―相反的‖,用于对比指出与前面事情截然相反的方面。 相当于 the opposite is true: not at all。 eg. (1)-I'm sure you like your new job. 我相信你喜欢你的新工作。 -On the contrary ,it's very dull. 正相反,新工作很乏味。 (2)I want to sell the house, but on the other hand I can't bear the thought of moving. 我想卖掉房子,但另一方面我又无法容忍搬家的想法。 12.sign n. 记号,符号;迹象;征兆;痕迹 signature n. 签名 a sign of rain 下雨的预兆 make/give a sign to 对……做手势 sign for/up 签字领取/报名参加 sign (your name) here, please. eg. (1)There were no signs of life on the island. 那个岛上没有生物存在的迹象。 (2)Nobody moved until I gave the sign. 在我发信号之前,谁也没动。 (3)He signs (to/for) me to stop. 他打手势让我停下。 (4)This is a registered letter, and someone will have to sign for it. 这是一封挂号信,必须有人签收才行。 (5)I'm thinking of signing up for the philosophy course this term. 我正在考虑这学期报名参加哲学课。 13. The United Kingdom is off the northwest coast of continental Europe. ① off the coast of … 离陆地不远的海上

on the one hand...; on the other hand... 一方面……;另一方面……

on the other hand , he hates her pride.


v. 签(名);做手势;做记号

traffic signs 交通标志 talk by signs 用手势交谈 sign in/out 签到/签退 sign sb. to do sth. 打手势让某人做某事

② on the coast 指在离海面附近的陆地上 I once stayed in a town on the south coast of England. He died in a shipwreck off the south coast. 句中的 off 是介词,译为“与…相离,脱离” eg. He lives in a villagea little away off the road. 他住在离大路不远的村子里。 It will be a good thing when those old cars are off the roads.那些旧车不再上路将是件大好事 from 指从某个起点离开或行为从某个起点开始;off 指离开或脱离某物。 ②continental adj. 大陆的,大陆性的 a continental climate 大陆性气候 continental breakfast 欧式早餐(只供应面包、咖啡的简单早餐) continental divide 大陆分水岭 continental shelf 大陆架 continent (C) n.大陆 North America 北美洲 Europe 欧洲 the New Continent English Channel. ③ Europe‘s third largest country 形容词的 最高级 级前加上了序数词 third 来修饰,如 eg. The second most expensive suit cost me 1000 yuan. 第二贵的西服花了我 1000。 ④ face n. 脸;面,表面 v. 面对,面临;朝向;正视 be faced with 面临/面对…… face up to 大胆面向 保全面子 save one?s face 【拓展】 in (the) face of 面对 make a face (=make faces) 做鬼脸;扮怪相 hit sb. in the face 打中某人的脸 lose one‘s face 失面子 with a smile on one‘s face 面带微笑 Australia 澳洲 新大陆,指南北美洲大陆 continental drift 大陆漂移 the Continental Congress 大陆会议 Asia 亚洲 Africa 非洲 Antarctica 南极洲 South America 南美洲 continent 大陆

14. France is Europe’s third largest country and faces the United Kingdom across the

face to face 面对面 fly in the face of 公然反抗

eg. (1)_Faced with_difficulty, we didn't give in.面对困难,我们没有屈服。 (2)The house faces (to the) south. 这房子朝南。 (3)Liu Hulan faced the enemy bravely /with courage.刘胡兰勇敢地面对敌人。 (4)If anything goes wrong, it is I who will have to face the music. 如果出了什么问题,负责任的是我。 15. 三种常见倍数句式: ①倍数+as+adj/adv(原型)+as ②倍数+adj/adv(比较级)+than ③倍数+the size /length /depth… of 16. Twenty percent of the country is covered by islands.

① Part of /half of /two thirds of /20 percent of + 可数名词复数+ 复数谓语 Part of /half of /two thirds of /20 percent of + 不可数名词+ 单数谓语 eg. Nearly 70 percent of the students wear glasses. 接近 70%的学生都戴眼镜。 Half of the food was wasted. 一半的食物都浪费了 ② cover v. 覆盖 cover A with B== A is covered with/by 被…..所覆盖 under cover 被守护 more than 超过;不仅仅 be famous as 作为…而出名 two-thirds 三分之二 be designed by (sb.)由…所设计 not…until 直到…才… in the 1300s 在 14 世纪 of all time 一直,有史以来 ever since 从那以后 from cover to cover 从头到尾 17. be situated(located) on/in 位于某处 be famous for 因…而出名 be famous to 为…所熟知 work on 从事 because of 由于 last for 持续 such as 例如 ●重点句型 1.France is Europe?s third largest country and faces the United Kingdom across the English Channel. 法国是欧洲第三大国,越过英吉利海峡与英国隔海相望。 across prep. (表示运动)横过,越过(表示位臵)在……的对面 The old man walked across the road cross v. 越过 cross the street 穿过大街 crossing (C)十字路口 2. Italy is in the south of Europe on the coast of the Mediteranean... 意大利在欧洲南部…… on(表示接近)接近于…,面向…(河川、道路等的)旁边,沿着,朝着… a town on the river 河畔的城镇 Paris is located on the River Seine. 巴黎位于塞纳河上。 on 表示事物与另一区域的接壤关系;to 表示事物对区域范围之外的另一事物的位臵;in 表示在范围内。 3.Their work has influenced other writers ever since.他们的作品影响了后世的作家。 4.The expanded European Union has a population of more than half a billion people, twice as big as the population of the United States. 扩展后的欧盟人口超过五亿,是美国人口的两倍。 II. Lauguage points: 2. Gaudi worked on the project from 1882 until his death in 1926. work on (sth) “继续工作,对…起作用” = contribute to 从事,致力于 spend time/energy on sth. eg.他近期一直忙着写新小说。He is working on his new novel in these days. 【拓展】 : work at 从事于… 致力于… work out 做出;算出

the second largest city 第二个最大的城市

3. Florence is an Italian city which became famous because of the Renaissance, a great artistic movement which began in the 1300s and lasted for three hundred years. 1)“Florence is an Italian city”是该句的主要成分,其后 which 引导的是定语从句,修饰 city。从句中“a great artistic movement...”是 the Renaissance 的同位语,这个同位 语中又包含一个定语从句 “which began in ... years”来修饰 movement。 2) because of ―由于,因为‖ (后接 n./doing/pron) =thanks to, owning to,as a result of ,due to,on account of 而 because 是一个连词,后者接句子。 试比较:He was late because of the rain yesterday. He was late because it rained yesterday. 3) in the 1300s 意为“在 14 世纪 30 年代” ,注意表示“……世纪……年代”时, 要在年代后加 s,类似的表达有:in one’s thirties 在某人三十多岁时。 eg. When he was ________, he got seriously ill ______ his addiction to smoking. A. in his twenty; because of B. in his twenties; because C. in his twenties; because of 4. Their work has influenced over writers ever since. ever since “从那以后” ,要和现在完成时或现在完成进行时连用,类似的时间状语还有 so far, up till now, by now, recently, lately, since last (month), in/for the past + 一 段 时 间,since...ago 等。 eg. ①He came to England three years ago and has lived here ever since . 他三年前来到英国,从那以后便一直住在这里。 ②I haven?t seen her since ten years ago. 自十年前至今,我没见过她。 ③We have completed half of the work so far . 到目前为止,我们完成了一半的工作。 ④The couple have been working very hard for/in the last(past ) ten years. 在最近的十年里这对夫妇一直努力工作。 【拓展】 :(1)It is/was/has been+时间段+since 从句(过去时)...自从……已经多久了 It is three years since he joined the army. 他参军 3 年了。 It is three years since he smoked.他戒烟 3 年了(不吸烟)。 (2)It will be/was+时间段+before 从句...再有多长时间才…… It was 2 years before we met each other again. It will not be long before he knows the truth.过不了多久,他就会知道真相, (3) 在 It is/was+时间段+since...句型中,若 since 从句中的动词为延续性动词,句子意思 要发生变化。 eg. How long do you suppose it is ______ he arrived there?(D) A.when 思维拓展 1. opposition [U] 反对,敌对 2. beside 和 besides 的用法:




oppositely adv.相反地

beside prep. 在…的旁边 besides prep. & adv. 除了…之外 next 后接宾语须有 to; near 为介词,可直接接宾语 3. none 与 no one none 可指人、物,可与 of 连用,用来回答 how many 的提问,谓 语单复数皆可。no one 只可以指人,不与 of 连用,谓语为单数,用来回答 who 的提问。 Neither, none, no one, nothing 表示全部否定,not 与 all, both, every 连用表示部分否定。 Eg: Both of them won‘t go there.他们两个人不会都去那儿。 4. calm 平静的,沉着的,指无风浪的或人的心情不激动。 still 静止的,不动的,指没有运动或动作。 silent 沉默的,不发音的。 5. paint 指用颜料画,如油画颜料、水彩或者水墨画;draw 通常指用铅笔、钢笔或者粉笔 画,后者一般并不涂上颜色。 6. imagination n. 想象力,思想 draw on (one‘s) imagination beyond imagination 出乎意料地 杜撰,编造 have a good imagination 想象力好

have a poor imagination 想象力差 7. Don‘t mention it. 不要客气;不用谢。哪里,哪里(客套话) 。 (not) worth mentioning (不)值得一提 8. belong to 没有被动形式,无进行时,类似的短语还有: take place, come about, come out, come up, come true, break out, run out, take part in 等。 9. increase 指形状、大小、数量、程度等的增大;enlarge 主要指大小、体积、范围、能力 等的增大;multiply 主要指增加数量,通过繁殖来增加。 课文部分练习题: 1.There had been no ____of life on Mars so far, though great efforts have been made on research. A.symbol B.sign C.mark D.signal 2.Known ______ a writer, Jin Yong, whose real name is Zha Liangyong, is well known ______ Chinese people ______ his wonderful works. A.as; for; to A.Faced B.for; to; as B.Face C.as; to; for C.Facing B.move C.Located C.opposed

D.to; as; for

3.______ with so much trouble, we failed to complete the task on time. D.To face C.shift D.range 4.For more than 20 years, we've been supporting educational programs that______from kindergartens to colleges. A.Locating A.across A.spread 5.______ in the east of the city, the museum is one of the biggest of its kind in the country. B.Being located B.contrary D.To be located D.opposite 6.The library is on the ______ side of the road from the school.

7.(2007· 浙江)The openair celebration has been put off______ the bad weather. A.in case of A.A little bit A.in other words ______ the coast. A.Since army ever since. Function Part: Words across between off to on in across 与 cross Usage on the other side of 在…另一边 having one thing on one side and sth else on the other 在…之间 常构成 between …and… away from 远离 off the coast in the direction 在…的外面,不接壤 next to, along the side of 接壤, 在河边 on the river/ coast within a place or area 在…内部 across 是介词, 不能在句中作谓语; cross 是动词,在句中作谓语 B.in spite of B.A bit less B.on the other hand A.On; on B.Unless A.had been C.instead of C.Not a little D.because of D.Little by little D.as a matter of fact D.Off; on 8.______, the wind died down and people began to appear on the street. 9.I would like a job which pays more but ______ I enjoy the work I'm doing at the moment. C.for one thing 10.______ the northeast coast of the sea, we could find the forest was on fire on the island B.Off; off C.As B.has been C.On; off D.Although C.was D.became 11.______ he has limited technical knowledge, the old worker has a lot of experience. 12.Wang Hailing's first book was a great success and she ______ famous as a writer in the

【注】 :across 指从一个平面上穿过;through 指从物体的中间穿过, 给人以立体感 ◆Other prepositions or prepositional phrases(其他介词或介词短语): Describe locations: On the left/right , in front of , behind, near, next to, opposite, 表达地点 ◆Practice: 1. The Red Army overcame many difficulties during the Long March, mountain, _____ the river and _____ the forest. A. over; through; across C. across; through; over B. over; across; through D. across; over; through _____ the snow above, below, beside... Describe movement 表达运动: to, from…

2. Taiwan is ______ the east of Fujian and lies _______ the east of China.

A. in; in A. of A. through

B. in; to B. from B. across

C. to; / C. off C. cross

D. to; /in D. on D. in

3.The country is a small island _____ the south coast of the Pacific Ocean. 4. As I came ___ the town, I found many houses had been destroyed by the earthquake. The countries are independent and are governed in different ways. govern vt. 统治,控制,管理 n. government 政府 eg. The price is governed by marked demand. 价格取决于市场需求。 Period 3 grammar Part 1 Subject and Verb agreement 主谓一致 (一)主谓一致三原则 1.语法一致的原则。即主语是单数,谓语为单数;主语为复数,谓语亦为复数。 eg. He does well in maths. Australia is an extremely rich country. 2.意义一致的原则。根据主语的意义,而不是形式,决定谓语的数。 eg. The teacher and writer is going to give us a lecture on writing. 那位老师兼作者准备给我们讲讲如何写作。 3.就近一致的原则。即谓语与靠近的那个主语一致。 eg. Either he or I am right. There is a dictionary and some books on the desk. 【注】 :①三个原则虽然不同,但在具体运用中,它们往往是协调的,并不矛盾。eg. More than ten students have passed the driving test.(形式和意义都是复数) ②当语法一致的原则与意义一致的原则发生冲突时,一般坚持语法一致的原则。 eg. More than one student has passed the driving test.(形式是单数,意义是复数) (二)主谓一致细说 1.谓语用单数时的情况: (1)不可数名词做主语时。 eg. There is a lot of water in the jar. 【注】 : 不可数名词前若有表示数量的物量词, 则谓语动词与物量词本身的形式一致。 eg. One million tons of oil were produced last year. (2)不定式短语((to do)、动名词短语(doing sth.)和从句做主语时。 eg. That she will come here tomorrow is certain. Taking more exercises is healthy. 【注】 :①what 从句做主语时,谓语动词的形式主要取决于后面的表语是单数还是复数。 试比较: What they want is nothing but a rest. 和 What he wants are two books. ②当 what 从句表示所说的话或所做的事时,谓语动词应用单数。

eg. What he said has left us much to think about. (3)主语是形单意单的词 ①主语若是单数名词,后面尽管跟有 as well as,with,together with,besides,except, but,including,rather than 等引导的短语,谓语仍用单数。(就前原则) eg. The teacher as well as his students is playing football. In some parts of the world,tea is served with milk or sugar. ②主语是 each 或单数主语被 each,every 修饰时。 eg. Each of the boys has a pencil box. Here every student is good at drawing. 【注】 :单数的并列主语被 every,each,no,many a 修饰时,谓语也用单数。 eg. Every desk and chair is new. Each teacher and each student has been told to attend the meeting after school. 【注】 :each 做主语的同位语时谓语由前面的主语决定。 eg. They each have finished their exercises. ③主语是 either,neither,the other 或主语被 either,neither 修饰时。 eg. Either of the answers is correct. Neither answer proves to be correct. ④every/some/any/no+body/one/thing 构成的复合不定代词做主语时。 eg. Nobody is absent. ⑤主语是 a kind/sort/type of+单数或复数名词时, 因为 kind/sort/type 是短语中的中心词,也是信息的焦点,所以,谓语与其一致。 eg. This kind of wheat isn't grown in our country. (4)主语是形复意单的词 ①以 s 结尾的国名、人名、书名、组织机构等专有名词作主语时。 eg. The United Nations(联合国) was founded in 1945. ②以 s 结尾的学科名词做主语时。 eg. Physics is taught in all middle schools. ③“One and a half+复数名词”做主语时。 eg. One and a half days is all I can spare. 2.谓语用复数时的情况 (1)主语是形单意复的词 ①people,police 等集合名词做主语时。 eg. The police have caught the thieves. ②“the/these/those+形容词/分词形容词”可以表示一类人,这一结构做主语时。 eg. Those wounded were taken good care of. “the+形容词”还可表示抽象事物,这时应视做单数。

eg. The beautiful gives pleasure to people. ③“the+表示国籍、民族的形容词”可以表示该国全体人民,这一结构做主语时。 eg. The Chinese are a brave and hardworking people. (2)主语是形复意复的词 ①某些具有抽象意义的复数名词做主语时。 eg. Things are getting worse and worse. The surroundings are usually quiet here. ②“one or two+复数名词”做主语时。 eg. There are one or two tickets left. ③glasses,compasses,trousers 等由两部分连成一体的名词做主语时。 eg. My trousers are worn out. 若前面有 pair 等物量词,则谓语由该物量词的形式决定。 eg. There is a pair of compasses on the desk. There are two pairs of glasses needing to be repaired. 3.谓语用单数或复数均有可能 (1)表示时间、金钱、距离、重量等的复数名词被看做整体时,谓语用单数。 eg. Ten dollars is what he needs. 和 Twenty kilometres isn't a short distance. 若侧重于一个个的个体,则用复数。 eg. Five years have passed since I joined the League. (2)and 连接并列的名词做主语时,谓语一般用复数。 eg. Reading and writing are both very important. Hard work and plain living (艰苦和朴素) are the fine qualities of a person. 若该结构表示一个单一的概念或指同一人、物时,谓语用单数,但这时两个名词前加一个 冠词。 eg. The maths teacher and class teacher(班主任数学老师) is very strict with us. Bread and butter(涂有黄油的面包)is their daily food. Hard work and plain living(艰苦朴素)is a weapon with which we have won one victory after another. (3)family,class,group,team, crowd,crew,enemy,committee,population 等集合 名词做主语时,若强调整个集体,谓语用单数。 eg. The population of China is large.中国人口众多。 若强调集体中的各个成员,谓语用复数。 eg. Nearly 80% of the population of China are farmers.中国将近 80%的人口是农民。 (4)what,which,who,some,any,more,most,all 等词做主语时,谓语动词的数根据 实际意义确定。 eg. All is silent.万籁俱寂。(all 指代整个情况、事件时是单数)

All are silent.所有的人都不做声。(all 指代人或物时,是复数) (5)none 做主语时,若指代可数名词,谓语用单数和复数均可以;若指代不可数名词,谓 语用单数。 (6)“half of,part of,most of,eighty percent of,one third of,the rest of+名词/代词”做 主语时,谓语根据后面的名词或代词而定。 eg. Most of the people agree with us. Most of the money is spent on clothes. (7)单复数同形的名词做主语时,谓语动词要根据主语的意义而定 eg. All means have been tried. Every means has been tried. (8)在四则运算中,加(add/plus)、乘(times/multiply)后面的谓语动词用单、复数均可,减 (minus/subtract)、除(divide)后面的谓语动词只能用单数。 eg. Three plus three makes/make six. Thirty-five divided by five is seven. (四)谓语与相邻的那个主语一致(就近原则) (1)either...or,neither...nor,not only...but also,not...but,or 等连接两个并列的主语时, 谓语须与靠近的那一个主语一致。 eg. Either you or I am wrong. Are neither you nor he for the plan? (2)在 here is, there is 或其他状语提前的倒装句中, 谓语动词的形式也适用邻近原则。 eg. Here is a pen and two pieces of paper for you. 5.主谓一致的其他情况 (1)在强调结构中,当被强调部分是主语时,从句中的谓语须与被强调词一致。 eg. It is I who am to answer for her safety. (2)定语从句中的谓语动词在意义上应与先行词一致。 eg. Do you know the girls who are soldiers? 【注】 :①当先行词为―one of+名词复数‖时,定语从句中的谓语动词用复数。 eg. She is one of the girls who have passed the exam.(先行词为 girls) ②当先行词为―the(only)one of+名词复数‖时,定语从句中的谓语动词用单数。 eg. She is the only one of the girls who has passed the exam. (3)“many a/more than one+单数可数名词”做主语时谓语用单数。 eg. Many a student has joined the League recently. (4)“the number of+名词复数”做主语时谓语用单数。译为“…的数量” “a number of+名词复数”做主语时谓语用复数。译为“大量的” eg. The number of the students in our school is larger than that in their school. A number of people are against the proposal.

主谓一致练习: 1. Large quantities of water ____every day here while it is in great need in some faraway area. A. are being wasted B. is wasted C. have been wasted D. was wasted 2. The writer and actor ____ invited to give us a report yesterday. A. are B. have been A. is; are A. Two fifth; is C. was D. were B. is; is B. Two fifths; are A. is C. is has C. are; is C. Two fifth; are B. have C. has D. are; are D. Two fifths; is D. are 3. Zhang‘s family ____ rather big and his family ____ fond of music. 4. ____ of the land in that district ____ covered with trees and grass. 5. Three hours ___ enough for us to finish the task. A. are B. has C. is D. were 6. His cattle _____ very fat. A. are, is B. is, have 7. The audience ____ large and the audience ____ enjoying every minute of the play. D. is are A. is B. are C. was D. were 8. Where ____ my jeans? I can‘t find them. A. was B. were C. is D. are A. have B. has C. are D. is

9. The surroundings ______ ugly and dirty. I don‘t like to live here. 10. There ____ a watch and chain on the table. A. is A. was, is A. likes A. are B. is B. are C. was B. is were B. like C. am D. were C. is, are C. has liked D. has D. are, is D. have liked

11. Skating and swimming ____ my favorite sports when I was young. 12. All ______ ready for the Christmas party and all ____ eager to enjoy the ball. 13. Not only his children but also his wife _____ to visit the zoo. 14. Neither you, nor I, nor anyone else ______ willing to do this work. 15. Bob, as much as his brothers, ________ responsible for the accident. A. was B. were C. had D. are 16. Tom, more than anyone else, _____ anxious to go to China again. A. is B. are C. has being B.is praised C. is working D. have being C.praised D. are working D.praise 17. Jane is one of the best students in her class who ______ by their teacher. A.are praised A. work B. working 18. Mr. Smith, along with his assistants, __on the project all day to meet the deadline. 19. When I came in, his family _____ watching TV. A. are B. is C. were D. was 20. Many a student ______ the importance of learning a foreign language. A. have realized B. has realized C. have been realized

D. has been realized

Part 2 The Passive Voice 被动语态 一、被动语态的构成形式: 1. 被动语态的基本时态变化 1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时 2) has /have been done 现在完成时 4) was/were done 一般过去时 6) was/were being done 过去进行时 8) should/would be done 过去将来时 3) am/is /are being done 现在进行时 5) had been done 过去完成时 7) shall/will be done 一般将来时 2. 被动语态的特殊结构形式 1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。 eg. The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter. 2) 有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主 语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。 eg. His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday. 3) 当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其 余不动。 eg. Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为 The boy was caught smoking a cigarette. 4)在使役动词 have, make,let 以及感官动词 see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe 等后面 不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式 to 要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加 to。 eg. Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为 A stranger was seen to walk into the building. 5) 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可以用于被 动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。 eg. The meeting is to be put off till Friday. 3. 非谓语动词的被动语态: 二、 如何使用被动语态 1. 讲话者不知道动作的执行者或不必说出动作的执行者 (这时可省 by 短语)。 eg. My bike was stolen last night. 2. 借助被动的动作突出动作的执行者。 eg. I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should accept the offer. 3. 为了更好地安排句子。 eg. The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people. (一个主 语就够了) 三、 It is said that+从句及其他类似句型 一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如 believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think 等 可以用于句型“It+be+过去分词+that 从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.”。有:

-ing 形式及不定式 to do 也有被动语态。

eg. I don't like being laughed at in the public.

1)It is said that… 据说… 2)It is reported that…据报道… 3)It is believed that…大家相 信… 4)It is hoped that…大家希望… 6)It is thought that…大家认为… 5)It is well known that…众所周知… 7)It is suggested that…据建议…

四、谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义 1.英语中有很多动词如 break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read,write,wash 等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式 表达被动意义,主语通 常是物。eg. This kind of cloth washes well. 【注】 :主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的影响。 试比较:The door won't lock. (指门本身有毛病) The door won't be locked. (指不会有人来锁门, 指―门没有锁‖是人的原因) 2. 表示“发生、进行”的不及物动词和短语,如:happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out 等以主动形式表示被动意义。 eg. How do the newspapers come out? 这些报纸是如何印出来的呢? 3. 系动词没有被动形式, 但有些表示感受、 感官的系动词 feel, sound, taste, look, feel 等在 主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。 eg. Your reason sounds reasonable. 五、非谓语动词的主动形式表被动意义 在某些句型中可用动名词(doing)和不定式(to do)的主动形式表被动意义 。 1. 在 need,want,require, bear 等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意义,其含 义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。即 need doing = need to be done eg. The house needs repairing(to be repaired) . 这房子需要修理。 2.形容词 worth 后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义, 但不能跟动词不定式; 而 worthy 后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。 eg. The picture-book is well worth reading. (=The picture-book is very worthy to be read. ) 3. 在某些“形容词+不定式”做表语或宾语补足语的结构中,句子的主语或宾语又是动词 不定式的逻辑宾语时, 这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。 这些形容词有 nice, easy, fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting 等。 eg. This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作 to work out 省略了 for me). 4. 在 too… to…结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应用主动形式表示被动意义。 eg. This book is too expensive (for me) to buy. 被动语态练习: 1. More than a dozen students in that school _____ abroad to study medicine last year. A. sent A. sounded B. were sent B. was sounded C. had sent C. had been sounded

D. had been sent D. was sounding

2. Her voice ______ so beautiful that everybody present was attracted by her song.

3. Books of this kind _____ well.

A. sell

B. sells

C. are sold D. is sold D. should blame

4. I feel it is your husband who ______ for the spoiled child. A. is to blame B. is going to blame C. is to be blamed 5. The library needs___, but it'll have to wait until Sunday. A. cleaning B. be cleaned C. clean D. being cleaned C. have kept D. have been kept D.was visited D.made D.to jump D.can put 6. Most of his savings ______ in the Xin Hua Bank. A. has been kept A.is visited A.is made A.jump A.puts B. is being kept B.will be visited B.are made B.jumps B.can be put 7. So far,the moon _by man already. C.has been visited C.were made C.jumped C.can be putted 8.Neither of them _in China. 9.The monkey was seen _off the tree. 10.The school bag _behind the chair.




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