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Unit 4 Language points


Unit 4
Text A Language points
globalization: n.

Globalization

free flows of capital, labor, technology, and personal contact across national borders * Some see the spread of English as an international language as just another consequence of globalization. (=Thanks to globalization, the burger you buy in Moscow is exactly the same as the one you buy in New York.) sweep aside: clear away or get rid of suddenly or forcefully; refuse to pay attention to sth./ sb. says * Anyway, by then she was sure that Julius would simply have swept any curbs aside. 他们对所有的反对意见不予理睬。 (=They swept all the objections aside.) Pattern: sweep away 扫清, 迅速消灭 sweep out 扫掉; 清除 sweep over 眺望, 环视 sweep up 打扫干净, 收拾干净 strengthen: vt. become stronger or make sth. stronger We must strengthen the weak links. (=The President's first priority was to strengthen the economy.) asset: n. 1) (usu. pl) money or property that a person or company owns *Copyrights, patents, trademarks, brand names, and trade secrets are all part of a company’s intangible assets. 目前,他们的资产有 623 万美元。 (=Currently, they have $6,230,000 in assets.) 2) an advantage or a resource *The most powerful asset we have is our skilled, dedicated workforce. (=A sense of humor is an important asset for any teacher.) Collocation: capital/ fixed assets cash assets liquid/ circulating/ current assets net assets

资本/固定资产 现金资产 流动资产 净资产

make no / little difference: have no / little effect (on), be of no / little importance (to)

*That does not mean it makes no difference to social welfare which rules we settle upon. 姚明的缺席似乎对休斯顿火箭队没有太大的影响。 (=The absence of Yao Ming seemed to make little difference to the performance of the Houston Rockets.) identify…as: recognize and correctly name someone or sth. *His accent identified him as a Frenchman. (=The policeman identified him as the thief.) elite: n. a group of people who have a lot of power and influence because they have money, knowledge, or special skills *Only a small elite can afford to send their children to this school. 这些人构成了有决定权的精英集团。 (=These people form an elite who have the power to make decisions. ) Collocation: political/social/economic elite 政治/社会/经济精英 a handful of: a very small number of people or things: *That place was of little interest. I only took a handful of pictures. (=What counts is having a handful of young that are exceptional.) earnest: adj. marked by or showing deep sincerity or seriousness *Friends described Jackson as an earnest, hard-working young man. 你可以笑,但我绝对是认真的。 (=You may laugh but I’m in deadly earnest. ) Collocation: in earnest 郑重地;严肃认真 CF: earnest, serious, severe 这三个形容词均有“严肃的”之意。 earnest 指严肃,认真,含诚恳和热情意味。例如: * I could tell she was speaking in earnest. 我看得出来她的话是当真的。 serious 指具有关键、严肃或严重意义的事情。例如: *We give serious consideration to safety recommendations. 我们认真考 虑安全建议。 severe 指面孔的严肃,法律的严厉,伤病的严重。着重严厉性,无丝毫温情。 例如: *Many people feel the punishment should have been more severe. 许多 人认为惩罚本应该更加严厉些。 considerable: adj. fairly large, especially large enough to have an effect or be important * Attracting tourists to the area is going to take considerable effort. (=A considerable amount of research was done here by our science department.)

interconnect: vi. connect to or with each other * Our operating system can now interconnect with other networks. 人们的生活是如何互相联系在一起的, 真是不可思议。 (=It’s strange how people’s lives interconnect.) advantageous: adj. helpful and likely to make you successful * Many bus companies provide advantageous fare tickets especially for tourists. 你会发现等几周再作答复是很有好处的。 (=You may find it advantageous to wait a few weeks before replying.) NB: “advantageous” 的名词形式为 “advantage”。与其搭配常用的短语是: “have the advantage of” “有优势”; “take advantage of” “(以不正当手段)利用;占 便宜” entitle: vt. 1) give a title to 给…题名,给…取名 *She was reading a poem entitled Auguries of Innocence. (=He entitled the book The Secret Garden.) 2) give someone the official right to do or have sth. *Full-time employees are entitled to receive health insurance. 他们有资格享有许多优惠和特权。 (=They are entitled to enjoy many advantages and privileges.) Pattern: be entitled 叫做, 称为 be entitled to (do) sth. 对...享有权利/有资格 vanish: vi. disappear suddenly, especially in a way that cannot be easily explained *My keys were here a minute ago but now they've vanished. (=The plane vanished from radar screens soon after taking off.) CF: vanish, disappear, evaporate 这三个动词均有“消失”之意。 vanish 语气强,指完全、往往是神秘而突然的消失,不留任何蛛丝马迹。 disappear 普通用词, 强调从视线或脑海中消失。 这消失可能是暂时的、 突然的或永久的, 视上下文而定。 evaporate 指像水蒸发时那样悄然逝去,也指某人悄悄地、突然退出或离去。 (Directions:) Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. 1. Drugs won't make the pain _______ altogether, but they will help. (=disappear) 2. All hopes of finding the boy alive have _____. (=vanished) 3. Hopes of achieving peace are beginning to ______. (=evaporate) 4. Before she could scream, the man had _____into the night. (=vanished) 5. 13 year-old Nicola ______ from her home on Saturday night. (=disappeared) 6. They then fan the water so that it ______ and in doing so lowers the temperature.

(=evaporates) 7. By the time of the trial, the tape had mysteriously _____. (=disappeared) facilitate: vt. make it easier for a process or activity to happen * Both centers are electronically linked to facilitate communication. 学校都建在同一校区内,以便资源共享。 (=Schools were located in the same campus to facilitate the sharing of resources.) 16. (Para. 4) at odds with: in conflict with; disagreeing or quarrelling with *The government decision to raise taxes was at odds with their policies on inflation. (=Briggs found himself at odds with his colleagues.) Collocation: at odds 矛盾;不一致 it makes no odds 没有关系,无关紧要 take odds 占优势 odds and ends 小事; 不要紧的东西 be committed to: promise to do (sth.); be devoted to *A lot of money has been committed to this project. 中国承诺发展低碳经济。 (=China is committed to pursuing a low carbon economy.) endorse: vt. express formal support or approval for someone or sth. *The Prime Minister is unlikely to endorse this view. (=I fully endorse the measures taken to improve safety standards.) Collocation: endorse a proposal/an idea/a candidate 赞成提议/想法/候选人 endorse a cheque 背书支票 erase: vt. get rid of sth. so that it has gone completely and no longer exists *Their dream is to erase poverty and injustice from the world. 没有什么东西可以使他忘记那件事。 (=Nothing can erase the incident from his memory.) CF:erase, delete 这两个动词都有“去掉,抹去”之意。 erase 指 “把写的或画的痕迹擦去或刮掉”, 用于比喻意义时, 指“从记忆中抹去”, 例 如: He erased the wrong answer and wrote in the right one. 他擦去了错误 答案, 写上了正确答案。 又如: Nothing can erase the incident from his memory. 没有什么东西可以使他忘记那件事。 delete 指“去掉、擦掉(字迹等)” 、 “勾掉、删掉(字句等)”, 例如: If you delete several words, we can put the whole story on one page. 如果你删去几个字, 我们可把整个故事写在一页上。 accelerate: v. (cause to) move faster or happen earlier

* Mr Henley has accelerated his sale of shares over the past year. 选手们跑过弯道时平稳地加速。 (=The runners accelerated smoothly round the bend.) forefront: n. the foremost part or area *The company has always been at the forefront of science and technology. (=Companies compete to stay at the forefront of research and development.) Pattern: at/in/to the forefront (of sth) 位于最前列;成为领导力量 keep sb/sth at/in/ to 使?保持在最前列 come into/to 跃居最前列 witness: 1. vt. be present and see * The crash was witnessed by scores of holiday weekenders along the beach. 20 世纪 80 年代,电子传媒得到了空前的发展。 (=The 1980s witnessed an unprecedented increase in the scope of the electronic media.) 2. n. someone who sees a crime or an accident and can describe what happened * Police have appealed for witnesses to come forward. (=The witness was asked to identify the defendant in the courtroom.) beat a path to/ beat down sb’s door: if people beat a path to your door, they are interested in sth. you are selling, a service you are providing etc. * The new design was supposed to have consumers beating a path to their door. 现在她已经成名, 她家门庭若市。 (=Now that she has become famous, all sorts of people will be beating a path to her door.) Pattern: beat a path to/ beat down sb’s door 门庭若市 beat a big drum for/about 为?鼓吹;;为?大肆宣传 beat a bargain 还价成交 remarkable: adj. unusual or surprising and therefore deserving attention or praise * Clark did a remarkable job setting things up for the meeting. (=She has made remarkable progress.) CF: remarkable, outstanding, striking 这三个形容词均有“显著的,引人注意的”之意。 remarkable 通常指因有与众不同的特点或优越性而引起人们注意或称道。 outstanding 通常指与同行或同类的人相比显得优秀或杰出, 或具有他人或别的事物所没 有的特征。 striking 强调能给观察者产生强烈而深刻印象。 (Directions:) Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary.

1. From the outside, the most _____aspect of the building is its tall, slender tower. (=striking) 2. It's a _____ achievement for the company. (=remarkable) 3. The lowest ranks of society showed the most ______ and significant contrasts. (=striking) 4. With her mass of black hair and pale skin she looked very ____. (=striking) 5. The book is a series of interviews with ______ artists and writers. (=outstanding) 6. His drawings are _______ for their accuracy. (=remarkable) 7. She would create something special, something _____ for her. (=outstanding) landmark: n. 1) sth. that is easy to recognize, such as a tall tree or building, and that helps you know where you are * The Washington Monument is a popular historical landmark. 这座塔曾是船只的陆标。 (=The tower was once a landmark for ships.) 2) one of the most important events, changes, or discoveries that influences someone or sth. * The Reform and Open Door Policy has become a landmark in Chinese history. 小孩的出世是所有相关人生活中一件大事。 (=The birth of a child is an important landmark in the lives of all concerned.) overtake (overtook, overtaken): 1) v. go past a moving vehicle or person because you are going faster than them and want to get in front of them * Before you start to overtake, make sure the road is clear ahead of you. (=Two trucks overtaking one another brushed him to the side.) 2) vt. catch up with or pass after catching up with *Television soon overtook the cinema as the most popular form of entertainment. 在工业产量方面德国迅速超过了英国。 (=Germany rapidly overtook Britain in industrial output.) NB: 前缀 over 可以放在名词,动词,形容词前边表达“too much 过分” 的含义。例如: “overpopulation” “人口过剩”; “overwork ” “过度工作” ; “overweight” “超重的” 。 displace: vt. take the place of; replace * Coal has been displaced by natural gas as a major source of energy. (=Some of the companies that have been displaced have, in their time, displaced others.) elsewhere: adv. in, at, or to another place *He'll work as a freelance consultant, unless he finds a better job 我们最喜欢去的那家饭店客满了, 因此不得不改去别处

elsewhere.

(=Our favourite restaurant was full so we had to go elsewhere.) patriotic: adj. having or expressing a great love of your country * Relatives remembered him as a deeply patriotic man. (=The presidential candidate said paying higher taxes was a patriotic act.) let alone: much less; not to mention * Many thousands of children had never even seen, let alone owned a pair of shoes. 他连带领保龄球队的本事都没有,更别提领导国家了。 (=He was incapable of leading a bowling team, let alone a country.) Pattern: let sb /sth. be 别打扰,不干预 let sth. drop/ fall 无意中说出,不经意透露 let sb./sth. go 放,释放 domestic: adj. relating to or happening in one particular country and not involving any other countries * Security on domestic flights in the US has been stepped up considerably. (=History books do not tell us much about the domestic lives of our ancestors.) strike a balance: give the correct amount of importance or attention to two separate things *Effective organizations will strike a balance that allows them not only to accept uncertainty but to take advantage of it. 他发现平衡家庭和工作的关系是很困难的。 (=He was finding it difficult to strike a balance between his family and his work.)

Text B Language points
with good reason with good cause; justifiably *One who hesitates… does so with good reason 很多居民担心他们的工作是有道理的。 (=Some residents feared for their jobs, with good reason.) herald: vt. announce or signal the approach of *Halloween heralds the beginning of the dark, cold half of the year. 先知宣告了巴比伦的毁灭。 (=The prophet heralded the destruction of Babylon.) If one were having a contest for the most wrongheaded prediction about the world after 9/11, the winner would be the declaration by the noted London School of

Economics professor John Gray that 9/11 heralded the end of the era of globalization. Translate the sentence into Chinese (=如果组织一次对 9/11 后的世界局势最错误的预言评选的话,冠军将会是著 名的伦敦 经济学院教授约翰· 格雷所宣称的 9/11 预示着全球化时代的终结。) originate: v. come into being, begin to exist *His book originated from a newspaper report. 所有的理论都来源于实践。 (=All theories originate from practice.) globalize: v. make (sth.) become generally accepted all over the world * The report paints a picture of a world of increasingly globalized education. 总经理强调,要保持全球化生产成本的竞争力。 (=The General Manager stressed the need to globalize production to remain cost-competitive.) namely: adv. that is to say *There are two ways to slide easily through life: namely, to believe everything, or to doubt everything; both ways save us from thinking. 他懂三个国家的外语,即:日语、英语和法语。 (=He knows three foreign languages, namely Japanese, English and French. stable: adj. firmly fixed; not likely to move, change or fail *More and more nomads have settled down and led a stable life. 慢下来, 以稳速回答问题。 (=Slow down, and answer questions at a stable pace.) NB: stability 是“stable” 的名词形式, 意为 “the state or quality of being stable” phase out: bring or come to an end, one stage at a time *Citing its high cost at a time of tight budgetary constraint, the University of Illinois will phase out an art history program. 即显(Polaroid film)胶片早已被淘汰。 (=Polaroid film was phased out long ago.) currency: n. money in actual use *Germany once had a solid economy, good fiscal and monetary policies,and a hard currency. 你的外币账户允许以美元、英镑和欧元提款。 (=Your foreign currency account allows withdrawal in USD, GBP and Euros.) subsidy: n. monetary assistance granted by a government in support of an enterprise regarded as being in the public interest *An increasing number of China export products are facing anti-subsidy lawsuits in

foreign countries. 补助金只提供购买 3500 元以下的电脑。 (=The subsidy was offered only for purchases of computers below 3500 yuan. ) fatigue: n. great tiredness, usu. resulting from hard work or exercise *The plane crash was most probably caused by metal fatigue. 他被劳累拖垮了。 (=He was worn down with fatigue.) in evidence: plainly visible; easily seen or noticed * As there was a pattern in evidence in all these murders, we’re quite sure they were committed by the same person. 这位女演员确信她的订婚戒指是引人注目的。 (=The actress made sure that her engagement ring was in evidence.) participation: n. the act of taking part in or sharing in sth. * There is need for more infected persons with HIV/AIDS to come out in the open and take active participation in activities to raise people’s awareness. 课堂参与占期末成绩的 20%。 (=Participation in class accounts for 20% of your final grade.) ''Globalization fatigue is still very much in evidence in Europe and America, while in places like China and India, you find a great desire for participation in the economic expansion processes,'' said Jairam Ramesh, the Indian Congress Party's top economic adviser. Translate the sentence into Chinese (=“全球化疲劳在欧美仍很显著,而在中国和印度这样的地方,你会发现人们急 切地想参 与到经济扩张进程中来, ” 印度国大党的首席经济顾问杰伦· 兰密施说。) so be it: (used to express acceptance, esp. of a situation one is not entirely happy with) I accept it as it is *If it’s your wish, so be it. 没有什么好做的。就这样吧。 (=There is nothing better to do. So be it.) add to: increase * The strike is adding to the chaos, but it is not causing it. 大米的价格最近几月急速上涨,增添了穷人的痛苦。 (=Rice prices have risen sharply over recent months, adding to the pain of the poor.) software: n. computer programs * India is said to turn out more software engineers than any other country. 小公司需要更便宜的软件。 (=Small companies need cheaper software.)

inherent: adj. existing as a natural and permanent feature or quality of sb./sth. * Weight is an inherent property of matter. 对美的渴望使我们所有人与生俱来的。 (=The desire for beauty is inherent in us all.) advantage: n. sth. that puts you in a better position than others * There is an advantage to being multilingual. 天气对我们的小组有利。 (=The weather is of advantage to our team.) Collocation: take advantage of 利用;占便宜 to advantage 使最好方面突出,有利地,有效地 a majority of: the greater number or part of *A new poll shows that a majority of New Yorkers support gay marriage. 大多数的公司禁止在工作期间登陆社会网站。 (=A majority of companies prohibit social networking websites at work.) you bet: (used for saying “yes” in an emphatic way) you can be sure *--Are you a fan of Michael Jackson? --You bet! 你发誓这是一个阴谋。 (=You bet it’s a conspiracy.) upside: n. an advantageous aspect * The upside of the whole thing is that we got a free trip to Africa. 恼人的是我们星期四才能旅行, 但好处是票价会更便宜。 (=It’s annoying that we can’t travel until Thursday, but the upside is that the fare’s cheaper then.) NB: upside 的反义词是 “downside”, 意为 “不利方面,缺点”。例如:The downside of the book is that it is written in a rather boring style. 这本书的缺点是,它的写作风格太单 调。 blow up: damage or destroy violently * We need to blow up the old bridge and build a new one. 海盗威胁要炸毁船只。 (=The pirates threatened to blow up the ship.)


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