3986.net
小网站 大容量 大智慧
当前位置:首页 >> 六年级英语 >>

小学英语基本语法

小小学学英英语语基基本本语语法法
第一讲 名词
知识要点
一、名词的数
在英语中,名词按其所表示的事物的性质可分为可数名词和不可数 名词。可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。单数名词表示一个可数事物。 复数名词表示两个或两个以上的可数事物。可数名词可分为单数和复 数两种形式:表示一个人或事物的名词用单数形式,在使用时,前面 一般加不定冠词 a 或 an,表示两个或两个以上的人或事物的名词用 复数形式,一般是在词干后附加词尾 s 或 es,如:bags ,boxes.名词 单数变复数具体规则如下:
1).规则变化 ①一般在名词后加 s.如 boy→boys, pen→pens 等。 ②以 s, x, sh, ch 结尾的,在后面加 es.如 class→classes,但 stomach 的复数为 stomachs. ③“以辅音字母+y”结尾的,y 变为 i,然后再加 es.如 baby→babies. ④以 f 或 fe 结尾的名词把 f 或 fe 改为 v, 再加 es. 如 knife, half,
leaf, wolf 等。 ⑤以 o 结尾的名词,除 tomato, potato 等少数在后面加 es 外,一般
是在后面直接加 s.如 kilo→kilos, photo→photos, zoo→zoos, radio→radios, piano→pianos, video→videos. 2).不规则变化 ① man → men, woman → women, foot → feet, tooth → teeth, , child-children,mouse→mice ② 单复数形式相同如:sheep→sheep, deer→deer, Japanese→ Japanese, Chinese→Chinese 等。 ③ 有些名词形式上是单数,实为复数意义,通常被称为复数名词, 如:people, police 等。 ④ 由 -man 和 -woman 构 成 的 合 成 词 如 : policeman → policemen, Englishman→Englishmen,Englishwoman-Englishwomen 但 German 不是合成词,故复数形式为 Germans.另外被 man 或 woman 修饰的 名词变复数时,两个名词都要变。例:a man doctor →two men doctors a woman teacher→some women teachers 但: apple tree→apple trees ⑤ 有 些 名 词 只 有 复 数 形 式 , 如 : clothes, trousers, glasses, chopsticks 等。 ⑥数词+名词作定语时, 常采用数词+单数名词形式,如 a two-week holiday, an 8-year old girl.另一种常见的形式有 five minutes’ walk, two days’ leave 等。
1

3)不可数名词没有单复数形式,要表示不可数名词的数量,可用以 下两种方法。 ①用 much, a little, a lot of /lots of some, any 等修饰不可数 名词。如: The rich man has a lot of money. ②可用表单位的词修饰不可数名词, 如:a piece of paper, two pieces of paper, a bottle of orange, a glass of milk, three bags of rice。 二、名词的格 1)表示有生命的东西(人或动物)的名词所有格一般在名词后加’ s .如:my father’s study 以 s 或 es 结尾的复数名词的所有格只 在名词后加’ 如: the teachers’ reading room 教师阅览室;不 以 s 结尾的复数名词的所有格要加’s.如:the women’s shoes 女 式鞋子。如果一样东西为两人共有,则只在后一个名词的后面加’s。 如果不是共有的,则两个名词之后都要加’s .如:Jane and Helen’ s room 珍妮和海伦的房间(共有)Bill’s and Tom’s radios 比尔 的收音机和汤姆的收音机(不共有) 2)表示无生命的东西,一般用 of+名词的结构。如:a map of China
练习:

I.写出下列名词的复数形式。

1.watch ____________ 11.strawberry _______________

2.child _____________ 12.thief ____________________

3. photo ____________ 13.girl student_______________

4.diary ____________

14.man doctor_______________

5.day______________

15.woman nurse_____________

6.foot______________

16.pear tree_________________

7.book____________

17. peach____________________

8.dress ____________

18. box______________________

9.tooth____________

19. baby____________________

10. deer___________

20. German__________________

II. 翻译下列词组。

2

1. 一 些 桃 子 _____________________ 10. 我 的 自 行 车

________________

2. 五 袋 大 米 ______________________ 11. 教 师 节

________________

3. 八 只 脚

_____________________ 12. 三 八 妇 女 节

________________

4. 二 十 颗 牙 齿 ____________________ 13. 二 张 纸

________________

5. 三 瓶 果 汁 _____________________ 14. 四 个 男 医 生

________________

6. 四 十 个 女 警 察 __________________ 15. 七 颗 梨 树

________________

7. 十 二 把 小 刀 ____________________ 16. 一 副 世 界 地 图

______________

8.九个德国人____________________ 17.Helen 的朋友

9. 许 多 孩 子 _____________________ 18. 双 胞 胎 的 妈 妈

______________

III. 按要求改写下列句子。

1. There is an orange tree in the garden.(改为复数句)

____________________________________________________

2. She is a good teacher. (改为复数句)

____________________________________________________

3

3. I have some interesting story books. (改为单数句)

____________________________________________________

4. There are some women teachers over there. (改为单数句)

_____________________________________________________

5. -What is it? –It’s a box. (改为复数句)

_____________________________________________________

IV. 单项选择。

( )1.Mr Smith is _______father. They are twin sisters.

A. Mary ’s and John’s B. Mary’s and John C. Mary

and John’s

( )2.She needs ___________________.

A. a glass water

B. two glasses of water C. two

glasses of waters

( )3.There are five______ in our school.

A. woman teacher

B woman teachers

C. women

teachers

( )4.There are many _______ in the fridge.

A. food

B.bread

C. vegetables

( )5.I’m thirsty. I think I’ll buy some______.

A. water

B. eggs

C. cakes

( ) 6.John bought ___ for himself yesterday.

A. two pairs of shoes B. two pair of shoe C. two pair of

4

shoes D. two pairs shoe ( )7. -What would you like to have for lunch, sir? -I'd
like____. ! A. chicken B. a chicken C. chickens D. the chicken ( )8. There are five ___in our factory. A. woman driver B, women driver C. woman drivers D. women drivers ( )9. The post office is a bit far from here. It's about_____. A. thirty minutes's walk B. thirty minute's walk C. thirty minutes' walk D. thirty minutes walk ( ) 10. _____ turn yellow in autumn. A. Leaf B. Leaves C. Leave D. Leafs ( ) 11. Will you please show me the way to the _____ shop? A. shoe B. shoes’ C. shoes D. shoe’s ( )12. _____ hard work it is! A. What a B. How C. What D. How a ( )13. His family _____ a happy one. A. be B. are C. is D. was ( ) 14. I met two _____ in the street yesterday morning. A. German B. Australian C. American D. Japanese ( ) 15. My grandparents like _____ very much, so they grow some in their _____ garden every year.
5

A. vegetable, vegetable B. vegetable, vegetables B. C. vegetables, vegetables D. vegetables, vegetable V.用所给单词的正确形式填空。
1. How many________(sheep) are there on the hill? 2. There is some________(food) in the basket. 3. The baby has only two________(tooth) now. 4. There is a lot of________(water) in the bottle. 5. There are five________(people ) in his family. 6. Let's take________(photo), OK? 7. I have lots of________(tomato) here. 8. The________(leaf) on the tree turn yellow. 9. Their________(dictionary) look new. 11. There are many________(fox) in the picture. 12.Different people may have different _______(idea). 13.Would you like some ________(tomato)? 14. Jim has some ____________(knife). 15. The girl under the tree is a friend of _______(Lucy).
6

第二讲 代词

知识要点
代词是用来代替人、事物等名词的词。 (1)人称代词 1.人称代词有人称、数和格之分,在句子中作主语用主格,作宾语或 表语用宾格。 2.在比较句型中的连词后,可以用主格也可用宾格。 3.句子中同时有几个人称代词出现时,一般按第二人称、第三人称、
第一人称的顺序。 (2)物主代词 1.形容词性物主代词y与名词性物主代词关系为:
名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+ 名词。 2.双重所有格:名词+of +名称性物主代词. Ann is a friend of my mother’s. 3.名词性物主代词用在比较句型中表示与前文中的比较对象相呼应。
My father is older than yours.(yours 指的是your father)
我 我们 你 你们 他 她 它 他们

主格 I

we

you you

he she it they

宾格 me us

you you

him her it them

形 容 my our your your his her its their

词性

物主

代词

名 词 mine ours yours yours his hers its theirs

性物

主代



反身 myse ourse yours yourse hims hers itse themse

代词 lf lves elf lves elf elf lf lves

7

(3)指示代词:指近处:this→these 指远处:that→those (4)反身代词:在英语中用来表示“我自己”,、“你自己”、“他自己”、
“我们自己”、你们自己“等意义的代词称为反身代词。反身代 词常用的固定短语有by myself, enjoy oneself, help oneself to,等 (5) 疑问代词:疑问代词是用来构成特殊疑问句的,疑问代词一般 位于句子开头。常用的有who, whom, whose, which, what等.

练习:

I 用相应的人称代词替换下列单词或词组

1.Lucy______________________ 6.Mike ’ s father and

mother________________

2.Mr White__________________ 7.you and Sue

_________________________

3.the man ___________________ 8. the desk

__________________________

4.Mary and I________________

9. Mrs Green

__________________________

5. Ed and Jim ________________ 10. many sheep

________________________

II. 用适当的人称代词填空。

1.That’s Tom’s book. Please give ________ to ________.

2.They’re new students here. Would you please look after

______________?

3.His sister is a nurse in the hospital. Do you

know________________?

4.This is a bedroom, there is a bed in ______.

5.______ is a tall and pretty girl.

III. 用适当的物主代词填空。

1.Look, this is _____ new bike. I like it very much.

2.We have two new friends, ________ names are Sam and Tim.

3.You must look after ________ things.

4.Mary usually goes shopping with_______ parents.

5.Look at _____ school, it’s big and beautiful. We love it

very much.

IV.根据所给汉语完成句子。

1.Which story is better, _____( 你的 ) or __________( 他

的 )?

2.Look! That is ____________( 我 的 ) bike. Where is

________(你的 )?

3.__________( 我们的)house is larger than _____________.( 他

8

们的 ). 4.I have a cat. ________( 它的 )name is Mimi. 5.These are ________( 她的)books, _______( 他的) are over
there.
6._______is a boy. _____ name is David. (he)

7. ______ is a nice girl, _______ name is Jenny. (she)

8.Is ______ English name Francisco? (you)

9.What is ______ phone number? (he)

10.How do ____ spell ______ name? (you)

11. _______ sister is a teacher. (she)

V. 用适当的指示代词(this, that, these, those)填空。

1. ______ pens are mine. Those are yours.

2. –What’s ____ over there? – It’s a car.

3.Look, _____ ruler is longer than that one.

4.–Hello! Who’s _____ speaking? – Hello! _____ is Mary

speaking.

5.Wang Lin, ______ is my brother Mike.

VI. 用适当的疑问词填空。

1. -________ are you doing? – I’m reading books.

2. -_________T-shirt is this? – It’s Tom’s.

3. __________ do you like better, this one or that one?

4. -_________is the man in the car? – He’s my uncle.

5. -To ______ did you talk last night? – My classmate , Jim.

VII.单项选择。

( )1. These are ______ oranges. Those are ______ oranges.

A. my, yours

B. his, her

C. ours,

their

( )2. ______ are in the same class. _____ Chinese teacher is

Miss Gao.

A. Their, Their

B. We, Their

C. They,

their

( ). 3_____ is a good teacher. _____ all like _____.

A. He, They, her

B. She, They, him C. She, We,

her

( )4. Mr Green teaches_____ English. He likes________ very

9

much.

A. us, them

B. them, they

C. me , me

( )5. _______are in the same school.

A. I, you and he

B. you, he and I

C. He,

I and you

( )6 .I met Kate on

way home yesterday .

A .my

B .me

C .his

D .him

( )7 .Kate and her sister went on holiday with a classmate

of

.

A .her

B .hers

C .their

D .theirs

( )8 .—Which of these two sweaters will you take ?

—I’ll take

.They look nearly the same ,and I just

need one .

A .both

B .either

C .none

D .all

( )9 .He has two basketballs .One is new ,

is old .

A .the other B .other

C .the others

D .others

( )10 .I have bought a new watch because my old

doesn’

t work .

A .it B .one C .that D .this

( )11 .—Can you speak Russian ? —Yes ,but only

.

A .little B .a little C .few

D .a few

( )12 .—What would you like to have ,tea or milk ?-____I’

d like to have a glass of water .

A .Each B .Neither C .Either

D .Both

( )13 .My car was broken and I didn’t know

to do .

A .what

B .which

C .when

D .how

( ) 14. There are many trees __of the road! And ____ of the

trees is growing larger and larger.

A. on both side, a number B. on each sides, a number

C. on both sides, the number D. on every side, the

number

( )15 .—Did she go to school when she was young ? —No .She

taught

at home .

A .her

B .herself C .hers

D .she

第三讲 形容词、副词

知识要点

10

1)英语中大多数形容词、副词是可以分等级的,一般有三个等级: 原级,比较级和最高级。形容词、副词的本来形式就是形容词的原级。 如:John is a tall boy.两者间进行比较用到形容词比较级。如: Jim is taller than John.三者或者三者以上进行比较用形容词的最 高级。Mike is the tallest of the three boys.(形容词最高级前 面要加定冠词the) 2).形容词、副词比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化 规则变化 ①单音节或双音节的形容词(或副词)比较级+er最高级+est small -smaller-smallest等 ②以e结尾的词,比较级+r,最高级+st即可nice-nicer-nicest ③以辅音字母+y结尾的,变y为i+er或est easy-easier-easiest ④双写最后一个辅音字母+er或est hot-hotter-hottest ⑥ 一些双音节及多音节形容词或副词前要加more和most,如:
difficult---more difficult---most difficult 不规则变化: good/well-better-best,bad-worse-worst many/much-more- most little-less-least far-further -furthest(表示程度) far-farther-farthest (表示远近) old-older-oldest(表新旧) old-elder-eldest (表兄弟姊妹之间的长幼) 3).比较级前的修饰词:a little, a lot, much, even; far; still 4)形容词、副词比较级的特殊用法 ①形容词/副词比较级+than+ any other+单数名词(+介词短语)”表 示“比同一范围的任何一个人/物都……”,含义是“最……”。 例如,Mike gets to school earlier than any other student in his class. = Mike gets to school earlier than any of the other students in his class. = Mike gets to school earlier than the other students in his class. = Mike gets to school earliest in his class.注意:Mike gets to school earlier than any student in Tom’ s class. ②“the+形容词比较级+of the two+……”表示“...是两者中较… 的”。 如,Look at the two boys. My brother is the taller of the two. ③“比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越……”。He is getting taller and taller. ④“the+比较级,the+比较级”表示“越…,越…,”。The more careful you are,the fewer mistakes you’ll make 5).最高级常用句型结构
11

①“主语+be+ the+形容词最高级+单数名词+in/of短语”表示“…… 是……中最……的”。 如,Tom is the tallest in his class./of all the students. ②“主语+be+ one of the+形容词最高级+复数名词+in/of短语”表 示“…是……中最……之一”。 如,Beijing is one of the largest cities in China. ③序数词+最高级
Hainan Island is the second largest island in China.

练习:

I.写出所给词的反义词。

1.young________

6.better___________

2. white________

7. longer__________

3. big__________

8. thinner_________

4. left_________

9. far_____________

5.fast_________

10. light__________

II. 用所给词的正确形式填空。

1. Maria is ________(thin). Lucy is __________(thin) than Mary.

2. Mike is ____________________(heavy) boy in his class.

3. Tom is as_________ ( tall) as Jim.

4. I am much _________( well) than yesterday.

5. This skirt is ___________________( expensive) of the three.

6. The weather today is ___________(hot) than it was yesterday.

7). Lucy writes __________________(careful) than her brother.

8)Today is ___________(busy) day this week.

9)That is ___ (easy ) of all.

10). He is ____ (clever ) boy in the class.

11). John is _____ ( short ) than Tom.

12). This box is ____ ( heavy ) than that one.

III、根据所给汉语完成句子

1. _____ ____exercise you take, _____ _____ (你锻炼越多就会

越强壮) you will be.

2. Who jumped _______ (最远) of all in the long jump?

3. Lucy says she will write to you back ____ ____ ____ ______

(尽可能快地)。

4. There are ____ ______ ______ (如此多的人) that we can’t see

each other.

5.—_____ _____ _____ (何时何地) shall we meet?

—Let’s meet outside the school gate tomorrow afternoon.

IV、单项选择

( )1. —Tom is the ____ one I want to work with. He is always

12

complaining.

— Be more patient. He is still a good boy.

A. best B. last C. first

D. only

( )2. We want to go to Japan to have a ____ study.

A. farther B. farthest C. further D. furthest

( )3. The meeting hall is ____ to hold 5000 people.

A. large enough

B. enough large

C. so

large D. too large

( )4. When spring comes, the trees get ____.

A. green and green B. green and greener

C. greener and green D. greener and greener

( )5. My _____ brother is three years ____ than I .

A. old; older B. elder ; older C. older; elder D. old;

elder

( )6. He’s ____ to hear the bad news.

A. sorry B. bad

C. happy D. well

( )7. The snow is over one meter ____ when it’s winter here.

A. long B. high C. thick D. this

( )8. This book is _____ worth seeing again.

A. very

B. quite C. well D. much

( )9. My sister sat ____ to me to listen to the story.

A. close B. closely C. nearby D. with

( )10. The sports car is running ____, It seems to be flying.

A. fast and fast

B. more and fast

C. more and

faster D. faster and faster

( )11. You run ____ for us to catch up with you.

A . too fast B. so fast C. too slowly D. so

slowly

( )12. Don’t look _____ the window? We’re having a class.

A. out of B out from C. down of D. out.

( )13. This year our school is ____ than it was last year.

A. much more beautiful

B. much beautiful

C. the most beautiful

D. beautiful

( )14. _____ the ground is, ____ air becomes.

A. The high; the thin B. The highest; the thinnest

C. The higher; the thiner D. The higher; the thinner

( )15. John is ____ of the two boys.

A. tall

B. tallest

C. the tallest. D. the

taller.

( )16. —Why does Peter like moon cakes with nuts instead of

13

the ones with eggs?

—Because he thinks the moon cakes with nuts are ____.

A. cheap B. dear C. worse D. nicer

( )17. She is ____ than I

A. a head taller

B. a taller head C. taller a

head D. head taller

( )18. Paris is one of _____ cities in the world.

A. more beautifully B. more beautiful

C. the most

beautifully D. the most beautiful

( )19. Shanghai is the first _____ city in China.

A. big

B. biggest C. the big D. the biggest

( )20. —Mr Zhou, of all the students in our group, who lives

___?

—I think Li Lei does.

A. far B. farther C. farthest D. the farther

( )21. Bob never does his homework _____ Mary, he makes lots

of mistakes.

A. so careful as

B. as carefully as C. carefully

as

D. as careful as.

( )22. My sister is good at sports, She can jump ____ than

me.

A. highest B. very high C. too high D. much

higher

( )23.The Yellow River is one of ___ in China.

A. the longest rivers B. the longer river C.

the longest river D. the long river

( )24.I don’t feel ___ to go to work today. I’

m ill.

A. good enough B. well enough C. enough well

D. enough good

( )25.Be quiet, class! I have ___ to tell you.

A. important anything B. important something C.

anything important

D. something important

V、同义句转换

1. Math is the most difficult of all the subjects.

Math is ____ difficult than _____ other subject.

Math is _____ difficult than _____ other subjects.

2. Joe isn’t as tall as Lucy..

Joe is _____ than Lucy.

14

3. Kate is 10 years old. Tom is 12 years old. Kate is ____ _____ _____ _____ Tom. Tom is ____ ______ _____ _____ Kate.
4.The bag is too expensive for me to buy. The bag is _____ _____ ______for me to buy.
第四讲 数词
知识要点
表示"多少"和"第几"的词,叫数词。数词分为基数词和序数词两种。 1)基数词:在十位数词和个位数词中间加上连字符 " - " 。如: 21 twenty –one‘基数词三位以上的数词, 在百位和十位之间,一般要 用连词"and "。 如: 132 one hundred and thirty-two. 表示"万"的词英语中没有.如1万可用10千来表示。 ten thousand. 30 万可用 three hundred thousand 来表示。 基数词的用法: 1.编号的事物用基数词: 如:Lesson Five, Room 101 2.表示"年,月,日" 时用基数词。 3.表示 "几点钟, 几点过几分" 用基数词。 It is two to two. 现 在是两点差两分。 4.加减乘除用基数词。 One plus two is three.一加二等于三。Eight minus four is four. 八减四等于四。
Two times two is four.二乘二等于四.Ten divided by two is five. 十除二等于五。 5表示百分数用基数词.
Thirty percent of them is water. 它们当中有30%的水。 6.表示分数时,分子数字用基数词, 但分母要用序数词, 如分子不是
1,序数词要用复数形式。 One-fifth of the books are mine. 三分之一的书是我的。 Three-tenths of water is disappeared. 十分之三的水不见 了。 2)序数词:表示数目顺序的词用序数词。 1.序数词1━19 除第一,第二,第三,第五,第八,第九, 第十二变化不 规则外, 其余均由在基数词后加上 -th。 2.十位整数的序数词的构成方法是, 是将十位整数基数词的词尾 -y 变成 i 再加 -eth。 3.几十几的序数词,只是把个位数变成序数词, 十位数不变。 4.第一百以上的多位序数词 由基数词的形式变结尾部分为序数词形 式来表示。 one hundred and twenty-first ,one thousand,three hundred and twentieth
15

5.序数词的缩写形式 有时,序数词可以用缩写形式来表示。主要缩

写形式有。

first——lst second——2nd third——3rd fourth——4th sixth

——6th twentieth——20th twenty-third——23rd 其中lst,

2nd,3rd为特殊形式,其它的都是阿拉伯数字后加上th。

6.通常前面要加定冠词 the;但是如果序数词前出现不定冠词a或an

时,则表示“再”,“又”.

We've tried it three times.Must we try it a fourth time?

7.基数词也可以表示顺序。只需将基数词放在它所修饰的名词之后

(名词需大写) 即可,不需要添加定冠词。

the first lesson—Lesson One ,the fifth page—Page 5, the

twenty-first room—Room 21

练习

( )1. I’ve read ______ sports news about the F1 race today.

A. two

B. pieces

C. two pieces D.

two pieces of

( )2. During World War II, a Jewish(犹太)lady was protected

by a local family in Shanghai in her ______.

A. fifties B. fifty

C. fiftieth

D. the

fiftieth

( )3. The river through our city, which is about _________,

is clean again.

A. 6000 meters long

B.

6000-metres-long

C. 6000-metre-long

D. 6000 meter long

( )4. I study in Yu Cai Middle School. There are two

____students in our school.

A. thousand

B. thousands C. thousand of

D.

thousands of

( )5. They said they would have

holiday.

A. a two-month B. two months C. two-months D.

two-month’s

( ) 6.—When was the PLA founded?

—It was founded on ____.

A. July 1. 1921

B. October 1.1949

C. May 1.1922

D. August 1.1927

( ) 7. In the past two years, many tall buildings have been

built in our city. The tallest is an

that stands

in the centre.

A. 80-floor building

B.

60-floor

16

building

C. 80-floor buildings

D. 70 floors

building

( )8.The number of people invited ____ fifty, but a number

of them _____absent for different reasons.

A. were ; was B. was ; was

C. was ; were

D.

were ; were\

( )9.- How soon will you finish your work? -In about

_______.

A. one and a half month B. one month and a half

C. one and half a month D. a month and half

( )10.-Would you like some fruit, madam? -Oh, yes. _______,

please.

A. 5 kilo bananas

B. 5 kilos

of bananas

C. 5 kilo of bananas

D. 5 kilos of banana

17

第五讲、 动词
知识要点 动词表示人或事物的动作或状态。根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为 四类, 分别是实义动词(指某个具体的静态如:think, love 等或动态如: run, walk 等)、系动词(常用的是be, feel, get, look, taste等)、 助动词(常用的是do, does, did等用来构成否定句及疑问句)、情态 动词(常用的有can, may, must, shall, should等,情态动词后一 定要跟动词原形)。 1) 动词的基本形式 绝大多数动词都有五种基本形式:动词原形、一般现在时第三人称单 数、现在分词、过去式和过去分词。 A. 第三人称单数形式的构成 一般现在时主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词后要加s或es,其变化 规则与名词变复数的方法大体相同: 1. 一般情况下只在动词后加s,如work—works, write—writes. 2. 以o,s, x, sh, ch结尾的动词,后加es,如guess—guesses, mix —mixes, finish—finishes, catch—catches. 3. 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词,改y为i加es,如study—studies. 注:不规则变化的有have—has B. 现在分词的构成 1. 一 般 情 况 下 在 动 词 后 加 ing , 如 study — studying, work — working. 2. 以不发音的字母e结尾的动词,先去掉e再加ing,如write—
18

writing, move—moving.
3. 以一个元音字母和一个辅音结尾的重读音节结尾的动词,要双写 末尾一个辅音字母,再加ing,如get—getting, begin—beginning. 4. 以ie结尾的名词,一般将ie改为y,再加ing,如lie—lying, die —dying, tie—tying. C. 过去式和过去分词的构成 1. 一般情况直接加ed,如ask—asked, work—worked. 2. 以不发音的e结尾,只加d,如love—loved, dance—danced. 3. 以辅音字母加y结尾,把y变为i加ed,如try—tried, study— studied. 4. 以一个元音字母和一个辅音结尾的重读音节结尾的动词,先双写 末尾一个字母,再加ed,如stop—stopped. 练习: I. 用be 动词的适当形式填空 1. __________ your father a worker﹖ Yes, he __________. 2.They __________ in the classroom. 3.Where __________ my books﹖ 4.These ___________her pears. 5.How much _________the T-shirt? 6.How much __________ the socks? 7.Our mother _________forty last year. 8.You can _________ in our school music club. 9.Let’s ___________friends. 10.He and I _________friends. 11.Someone __________ in the room. 12. There ____ some apples on the table yesterday. II.划出每句中正确的词 1.(Is/Are)his eraser on the sofa? 2.(Where/What)are your baseball? 3.(Do/Does)Mary have a clock? 4.(Are/Do)they want to see a movie? 5.(Is/Can)she play the violin? 6.I (don’t/ doesn’t)like hamburgers. 7.Why does Alice (likes/like)music? 8.Who (am/is) your father?
9.(What/What’s) her favorite subject?
10.How much (are/is) her socks?
11. I (am, is, was, were) busy last week.
12. Tom and I (am, are, was, were) late for school yesterday.
19

13. I (walk, walks, walked, walking) to school last Saturday. 14. Rose (does not, did not, ) visit her uncle last month. 15. There (is, was, are, were) a lot of people over there ten years ago. III.写出下列动词的第三人称单数、现在分词和过去式。 如:look – looks – looking- looked drink_________ _________ _________ go _________ _________ _________ stay _________ _________ _________ make _________ _________ _________ teach_________ _________ _________ ride _________ _________ _________ have_________ _________ _________ pass_________ _________ _________ carry _________ _________ _________ come_________ _________ _________ watch_________ _________ _________ plant_________ _________ _________ fly_________ _________ ____________ study_________ _________ _________ brush_________ _________ _________ read_________ _________ _________ run _________ _________ _________ write_________ _________ _________
20

swim_________ _________ _________ get_________ _________ __________ say_________ _________ __________ take _________ _________ _________ see_________ _________ __________ begin_________ _________ _________ dance_________ _________ _________ IV.用所给词的正确形式填空。 1. Let me _______ (help) you find your purse. 2. Would you like__________(buy) things for New Year’s Day? 3. I like __________( make) kites. 4. He can________ (skate) better than ME. 5. You must _______( listen) to your teacher in class. 6. They enjoy________(play) basketball. 7. She wants________(watch) cartoons. 8. It’s time for us ________( read) books. 知识要点 2). 一般现在时 一般现在时的用法: 1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色 的。 2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.
21

我每天六点起床。 3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太 阳转。 4. 有时这个时态表示按计划、规定要发生的动作(句中都带有时间
状语),但限于少数动词,如:begin, come, leave, go ,arrive, start , stop, return, open, close 等。 如:The meeting begins at seven.会议 7 点开始。 5.在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来。如: If you come this afternoon, we’ll have a meeting.如果你今 天下午来,我们将开会。 一般现在时的结构: 1. be 动词:主语+be(am ,is, are)+其它。如:I am a boy.我是一 个男孩。 2.行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。如:We study English.我们 学习英语。 当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。 如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。 一 般 现 在 时 常 用 的 时 间 词 : often, usually, sometimes, every day(week, year...)等。 练习: I.用括号内动词的适当形式填空。 1. He often ________(have) dinner at home.
22

2. Daniel and Tommy _______(be) in Class One.

3. We _______(not watch) TV on Monday.

4. Nick _______(not go) to the zoo on Sunday.

5. ______ they ________(like) the World Cup?

6. What _______they often _______(do) on Saturdays?

7. _______ your parents _______(read) newspapers every day?

8. The girl _______(teach) us English on Sundays.

9. She and I ________(take) a walk together every evening.

10. There ________(be) some water in the bottle.

11. Mike _______(like) cooking.

12. They _______(have) the same hobby.

13. My aunt _______(look) after her baby carefully.

14. You always _______(do) your homework well.

15. I _______(be) ill. I’m staying in bed.

16. She _______(go) to school from Monday to Friday.

17. Liu Tao _______(do) not like PE.

18. The child often _______(watch) TV in the evening.

19. Su Hai and Su Yang _______(have) eight lessons this term.

20.-What day _______(be) it today?

-It’s Saturday

II. 改错(划出错误的地方,将正确的写在横线上)

1. Is your brother speak English?

__________________

23

2. Does he likes going fishing?

__________________

3. He likes play games after class.

__________________

4. Mr. Wu teachs us English.

__________________

5. She don’t do her homework on Sundays. _________________

知识要点

3). 现在进行时

现在进行时的用法:

.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时

间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。

现在进行时的结构: be+动词 ing.

现在进行时常见的标志词:now, Look! Listen!

现在进行时还可以表示将来.如:

He is flying to Beijing tomorrow.他明天将乘飞机去北京。

练习:

I.用所给的动词的正确形式填空:

1.The boy __________________ ( draw)a picture now.

2. Listen ! Some girls _______________ ( sing)in the classroom .

3. My mother _________________ ( cook )some nice food now.

4. What _____ you ______ ( do ) now?

5. Look! They _______________( have) an English lesson .

6.They ____________(not ,water) the flowers now.

7.Look! the girls ________________(dance )in the classroom .

24

8.What is our granddaughter doing? She _________(listen ) to

music.

9. It’s 5 o’clock now. We _____________(have)supper now

10.______Helen____________(wash )clothes? Yes ,she is .

11.It’s ten o’clock. My mother _____(lie)in bed.

12. What ____he _____(mend)?

13. We _____(play)games now.

14.What ____you____(do) these days?

15. ____he ___(clean) the classroom?

16. Who____(sing)in the next room?

17. The girl____(like)wearing a sweater. Look! She ____(wear)a

red sweater today.

II.单项选择

( )1.Look! He _____their mother do the housework.

A. is helping B. are help C. is help

D .is

helpping

( )2 ._____are the boys doing ? They are singing in the room.

A .Who

B .How

C. What

D.Where

( )3. Don’t talk here. My mother _____.

A. is sleeping

B .are sleeping C. sleeping

D .sleep

( )4. Danny ______. Don’t call him.

25

A. is writeing

B .is writing

C. writing

D .writes

( )5.–When_____ he_____ back? – Sorry, I don’t know.

A. does, come

B. are ,coming C. is ,come D.

is ,coming

( )6. The children _____ football.

A. is playing B. are playing C. play the D. play a

( )7. Listen! She____ in the classroom.

A. is singing B. sing C .to sing D. is sing

( )8. It’s six in the afternoon. The Greens_______ lunch

together.

A. has B. are having C. have had D. had had

( )9. Some Germans _______(visit) our school.

A. is visiting B. are visiting C. visit D visiting

( )10. I want to know when he _______ for New York tomorrow.

A. has left B. is leaving C. had left D. has been

leaving

A. is visiting B. are visiting C. visit D visiting

( )15.Some Germans _______(visit) our school.

知识要点

4). 一般将来时

一般将来时的用法:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划

26

或准备做某事。 一般将来时的基本结构:①be going to + do;②will+ do. 一般将来时常用的时间词: tomorrow, next week (month, year … ),soon, the day after tomorrow,in+一段时间等。
练习: I. 填空。 1.我打算明天和朋友去野炊。 I_____ _______ _________ have a picnic with my friends. I ________ have a picnic with my friends. 2. 下个星期一你打算去干嘛? 我将去打篮球。 What ________ ________ _________ _________ _________ next Monday? I _______ ______ _____ play basketball. What _________ you do next Monday? I ________ play basketball. 3.你们打算什么时候见面。 What time _______ you _________ __________ meet? II. 用所给词的适当形式填空。 1.Today is a sunny day. We___________________ (have) a picnic this afternoon. 2. My brother _______________ (go) to Shanghai next week. 3.Tom often______________(go) to school on foot. But today is rainy. He ______________ (go) to school by bike.
27

4.What do you usually do on weekends? I usually __________ (watch) TV and ____________(catch) insects? 5.It’s Friday today. What _____she_________ (do) this weekend? She ______________ (watch) TV and _____________ (catch) insects. 6. What ________ you______ (do) next Sunday? I ______________ (milk) cows. 7. Mary ____________ (visit) her grandparents tomorrow. 8. David ______________ (give) a puppet show next Monday. 9. I ________________ (plan) for my study now 知识要点 5). 一般过去时 一般过去时的用法:间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时 间状语连用。一般过去时也表示过去经常或反复发生的动作或状态。 1.过去某个时间所发生的动作或存在的状态。e.g. I bought a new
shirt yesterday. He was a worker two years ago. 2.过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。e.g. When I was a
child,I often played with fire. Li Lei always walked to school last term. 3.谈到已故人的情况时多用过去时。e.g. Lu Xun was a great writer. 一般现在时常用的时间词:yesterday 或由其构成的短语,yesterday
28

morning 由"last "构成的短语 last year 由"时间段+ago"构成的短语, e.g. three days ago; 另外在宾语从 句中主句为过去时,一般从句也用过去时.
练习: I. 单项选择。 ( ).1 She lived there before he ____to China.
A. came B. comes C. come D. coming ( ).2 I _____but _____ nothing.
A . was listened; was hearing B. listened; heard C . have listened; heard D. listened; heard of ( ).3 When did you ____here? A. got to B. reached C. arrive in D. reach ( ).4 I ____my homework at 7:00 yesterday evening. A.did B. would do C. was doing D. do ( ).5 -He went shopping with you yesterday afternoon, didn’ t he? - _______.
A. No, he doesn't B. Yes, he didn't C. No, he did D. Yes, he did. II. 用所给词的正确形式填空。 1 They____(be) on the farm a moment ago. 2 Jenny____(not go)to bed until 11:00 o'clock last night. 3. I _____(see)Li Lei ____(go) out just now.
29

4 He ____(do)his homework every day. But he __(not do)it yesterday. 5 When I was young, I _____(play)games with my friends. 6 When ____you_____(write)this book? I _____it last year. 7 Did he____(have) lunch at home? 8 I _____(eat) the bread before I went to school.
第六讲、简单句 知识要点 根据句子的结构,英语的句子可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。简单 句的基本形式是由一个主语加一个谓语构成。其它各种句子形式都是 由此句型发展而来. 1)简单句的五种基本句型 1. 主语+谓语(不及物动词) [S + V] 如:The children are playing happily. 2. 主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语 [S+V+O] 如:The Greens enjoy living in China. 3. 主语+谓语+表语 [S+V+P] 该句型谓语动词为连系动词。常见的系动词有:be(是); get(变得), become(成为), turn(变得), look(看起来), feel(感到), smell(闻 起来), taste(尝起来), sound(听起来), seem(似乎) 等 The apple pie tastes really delicious. 4. 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 [S+V+InO+DO]
30

这种句型中的及物动词后跟双宾语,既指人的间接宾语和指物的直接 宾语。也可以把间接宾语放在直接宾语之后,但要加介词 for 或 to。 如: ① My aunt bought me a computer. = My aunt bought a computer for me. ② I passed him the salt. = I passed the salt to him. 5. 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 [S+V+O+OC] We must keep our school clean.
练习: 用五个英语的基本句型各造 3 个英语句子 1.[S + V] ___________________________________________________________ _____ 2. [S+V+O] ___________________________________________________________ _____ 3.[S+V+P ___________________________________________________________ _____ 4.[S+V+InO+DO] ___________________________________________________________ _____
31

5.[S+V+O+OC] ___________________________________________________________ _____ 2)一般疑问句
一般疑问句对全句提出疑问,用 yes 或 no 回答。其结构为:be 动词(is, am, was, were)或情态动词(can, will, shall)或助动词 (do, does, did)+主语+其他?通常译为“...吗?”如:Are you a student? Can you sing an English song? Did they watch TV last night?
练习: I. 将下列句子改为一般疑问句。1-4 句作肯定回答,5-8 句作否定回 答。 1. My sister is older than Mary. ___________________________________________________________ _ 2. They like collecting leaves. ___________________________________________________________ _ 3. Mr Green was here yesterday. ___________________________________________________________ _ 4. We took lots of pictures last week.
32

___________________________________________________________

_

5. Jim does well in English.

___________________________________________________________

_

6. She can sing and dance.

___________________________________________________________

_

7. There are some sheep on the hill.

___________________________________________________________

_

II.根据所给答语,选择相应的问句。

( )1.Yes, I do.

A. Is it time to have a

lesson?

( )2. No, you can’t.

B. Do you often go to the

supermarket ?

( )3. No, she isn’t.

C. Are their friends from

different countries?

( )4. Yes, they are.

D. Is Nancy a Japanese girl?

( )5. No, it’s time to have a rest. E. Can I play the piano

now?

( )6. No, he didn’t.

F. Did Sam run faster than

33

Tom three years ago? III. 根据实际情况回答问题。 1. Are you a student? ________________________________________ 2. Is your mum a nurse? ________________________________________ 3. Do you like English? ________________________________________ 4. Are there any Japanese students in your school? ________________________________________ 5. Would you like some apples? ________________________________________ 知识要点 3)特殊疑问句 特殊疑问句由特殊疑问词引导,针对句子中的某一个具体部分提问, 要求作具体回答。特殊疑问句的结构一般是:特殊疑问词+一般疑问 句语序?我们所用的“对划线部分提问”的题目就是将陈述句转变为 特殊疑问句。
练习: 对下列句中画线部分内容提问。 1. Her uncle is John. ________________________________________________.
34

2. Her uncle’s name is John. ________________________________________________. 3. They go to school at about 7:00 every morning. _______________________________________________. 4. My father is a driver. _______________________________________________. 5. They are going to fly kites in the park. _______________________________________________. 6. It’s about four kilometers away from here. _______________________________________________. 7. My father is cleaning the car. _______________________________________________. 8. The woman in the car is my aunt. _______________________________________________.
第七讲、There be 结构 知识要点 1)英语中的 There be 结构意思是“有”,表示在某地或某时有某人 或某物。There be 结构强调的是“存在关系”。There be 结构中的 be 具有时态变化(is, are, was, were). There be 后接的如果是 单数可数名词或不可数名词时,be 只能是单数形式 is 或 was;如: There is a book on the desk. There was some milk in the bottle yesterday. 如:There be 后接的如果是复数可数名词时,一定要用
35

复数形式 are 或 were。There are some books on the desk. There were some books on the desk yesterday. 2)在英语中表示“有”这一概念除了 there be 结构以外,还有 have/ has。它们的用法区别:have/ has 表示“某物归某人所有”,强调所 属关系,而 there be 指“在某地或某时有某人或某物”,强调存在关 系。比较:There is a bus in our school.(只表示存在,bus 不 一定属于学校) Our school has a bus.(表示我们学校拥有 bus 这一财产).考查 there be 句型的常见题型有单项填空、完型填空、句型转换和改错 等。做这类题时,必须首先认真理解全句的意思,看是表示“存在” 的“有”还是“拥有”来决定是否用 there be 还是用其他句型。 3)There be 可以有现在时(there is/are)、过去时(there was/were)、 将来时(there is/are going to be 或 there will be)和完成时(there have/has been);还可用 there must be ,there can’t be, there used to be 等 4)反意疑问句的构成:be (not) there? 5)主谓一致:There be 结构中的 be 动词要和后面所跟名词保持一致, 遵循就近原则。 注意: 1.句型中含有 some 时,变为否定句、疑问句时一般要改为 any。 2.对数量提问:How many +可数名词复数 + are there +…?
How much +不可数名词 + is there +…?
36

3.对句中 sth.部分提问一般用 What’s +地点状语?有时也用 What’s there +地点状语? 4.there be 句型中有时不用动词 be ,而用 come , live ,stand , lie, seem to be , happen to be ,等 练习: I.将下列句子改成否定句和一般疑问句,并作肯定与否定回答。 1. There is some juice in the fridge. ______________________________________________________ 2. There were two apple trees in front of the house two years ago. ______________________________________________________ II..用 there be 或 have 的适当形式填空。 1. ________ any pencils in your pencil-box? 2. ________ you _____________ any pencils in your pencil- box? 3. Lucy ___________ a twin sister, Lily. 4. _________ a TV in our classroom last term. 5. How many hours ___________ in a day? 6. -How many legs ______ a table ________? - It _______ four. 7. -What’s in your bedroom?
-__________________ a bed, a desk and some chairs. 8.. My parents _____ two children and ________ four people in my family.
37

III.单项填空。

( )1. There ___ any rice in the bowl.

A. are

B. is

C. isn’t D. aren’t

( )2.There ___ many apples on the tree last year.

A. have been B. were

C. are

D. is

( )3.How many ___ are there in the room ?

A. apple B. students C. milk

D. paper

( )4.Do you know if ___ a meeting next Sunday ?

A. there was going to have B. there was going to be

C. is there going to be

D. there will be

( )5.There is some milk in the bottle, ____ ?

A.isn't there

B.aren't there C.isn't it

D.are there

( )6.There ____ a lot of good news in today's newspaper.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

( )7.There ____ pencil-box, two books and some flowers on the

desk.

A. is a B. are some C. has a D. have some

( )8. There is little water in the glass, ____ ?

A. isn't there B. isn't it C. is it D. is there

( )9. —There is no air or water on the moon. Is there? —

____.

38

A. Yes, there are B. No, there isn't C. Yes, there

isn't D. No, there is

( )10. —What did you see in the basket then ?

—There ____ a bottle of orange and some oranges.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

( )11. ____ is there on the table?

A. How many apples B. How much bread C. How much breads

D. How many food

( )12. There isn't ____ paper in the box.. Will you go and

get some for me?

A. any B. some C. a D. an

( )13. There ____ something wrong with our classroom.

A. are B. has C. is

D. have

( )14. There is some ____ on the table.

A. apple B. orange C. cake D. sandwich

39


推荐相关:

小学英语基础语法归纳.doc

小学英语基础语法归纳 - 名词 名词单复数,名词的格式 ( 一 ) 名词单复数


小学英语语法大全(完整版).doc

小学英语语法大全(完整版) - 小学英语语法大全 第一章 名词一、定义 名词是表


小学英语语法大全.doc

小学英语语法大全 - 小学英语语法大全 一、名词复数规则 1.一般情况下,直接加


小学英语必须掌握的基本语法.doc

小学英语必须掌握的基本语法 - 小学英语必须掌握的基本语法 一般来说,小学英语的学习主要涉及一些比较基础的英语知识,掌握好这些基础知识,就能为以后英语的学习 打下...


人教版小学英语语法大全.doc

人教版小学英语语法大全 - 一、名词复数规则 1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:b


小学英语语法大全经典全面.doc

小学英语语法大全经典全面 - 小学英语语法大全经典全面 第 2 讲 语音 1、音


小学英语基本语法.doc

小学英语基本语法 - 小学英语基本语法 一、基本语法: 1 词末发清辅音读[s]


小学英语语法知识点归纳.doc

小学英语语法知识点归纳 - 小学英语语法知识点归纳 一、名词复数规则 1.一般情


小学英语语法入门(一).doc

小学英语语法入门(一) - 小学英语语法入门(一) 接数字要大写首字母的单词 有


小学英语语法点汇总).doc

小学英语语法点汇总) - 语法及练习 1 be 动词 Be 动词的用法: 动词的


小学英语语法大全(完整版)..doc

小学英语语法大全(完整版). - 小学英语语法大全 第一章 名词一、定义 名词是


最实用最全的-小学英语语法_图文.ppt

最实用最全的-小学英语语法 - 一、名词(可数名词和不可数名词) 二、人称代词


小学生应该掌握的基本英语语法.doc

小学生应该掌握的基本英语语法 - 小学生应该掌握的基本英语语法 一般来说, 小学英语的学习主要涉及一些比较基础的英语知识,掌握好这些基础 知识,就能为以后英语的...


小学英语语法总结全集.doc

小学英语语法总结全集 - 小学英语语法总结全集 四大时态 一、一般现在时 一般现


小学英语语法内容总结及练习.doc

小学英语语法内容总结及练习 - 小学英语语法及习题 一:小学英语语法总结: 小学英语语法总体上有如下四大块: 1. 名词的单数和复数变化规则. 2. 时态 (小学阶段...


小学英语语法基础知识总结.doc

小学英语语法基础知识总结 - 基础知识 1. 元音音标开头的单词用 an,辅音音


2018小学英语语法大全(超实用)_图文.ppt

2018小学英语语法大全(超实用) - 协助孩子全面复习英语语法,最实用最全面了... 2018小学英语语法大全(超实用)_英语_小学...英语中没有“万”这个单位,所以常用 ...


小学英语常用语法知识总结.doc

小学英语常用语法知识总结_英语_小学教育_教育专区。小学英语常用语法总结,主要是考试经常遇到的问题。 小学英语基础语法知识---常考知识点(一) 1 动词 be(is,am...


小学英语语法基础知识大全._图文.pdf

小学英语语法基础知识大全. - 牛构匠限蔫峙肥牲审尼栽骄则朵搪巩希氏幢阿止厨抄证


小学英语语法大全.doc

小学英语语法大全 - 小学英语语法大全 一、名词复数规则 1?一般情况下?直接加

网站首页 | 网站地图
3986 3986.net
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit325@qq.com