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大功率LED制程技术


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Reporter: Date: May 11,2006
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?LED ?LED ?LED ?

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LED

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LED

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GaN
2008年APT使用350mA/mm2

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Conventional versus Power LED
Lumileds Flip-chip

From Lumileds

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TYNTEK 40 mil Power chip

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n1 sin
n2

1 = n2 sin
2

2

1 n1

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Light Extraction
Absorbing substrate Transparent substrate

GaN:22 AlGaAs=17
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Lumileds AlGaInP LED

斜面如何加工?腐蚀?

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Improved design of LEDs to increase efficiency

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Lumileds AlGaInP LED

From Lumileds
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Truncated-inverted-pyramid LED

Cree TIP InGaN LED 64
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Cree Standard and TIP LED

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Osram’s InGaN Chip

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AlGaInP LED

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InGaN LED

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Two Best High Power LED Chip Structures

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Relative light output of LEDs as a function of the junction temperature

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High power LED chip design

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Flip chip designs have lower thermal resistance and lower absorption and so favorable for integration
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Series chip

Vf@20mA= 9V

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Array LED

Vf@20mA=28V
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Increase in the extraction efficiency

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Nichia’s high power LED

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Increase in the extraction efficiency

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Nichia’s high power LED

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InGaN Wafer bonding Increase in the extraction efficiency

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Wafer bonding Increase in the extraction efficiency

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Photonic Crystal LEDs

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From Lumileds

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Photonic Crystal LEDs

see Wierer et. Al., Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 84 (19), 3885 (2004).

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?LED
Wafer Bonding Process ? Chip Process ? Flip chip Process
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LED Wafer Bonding mirror substrates
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Metal with high reflectivity >90% for red and yellow wavelengths

Metal Si Substrate
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Si with excellent thermal conductivity (Wcm-1K-1) Si :1.68, GaAs :0.47, GaP : 0.77

From VPEC

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VPEC’s Wafer Bonding Process
(a)Wafer bonding
Mirror Substrate Uniaxial Pressure

(b)After bonding
Bonding

Si Substrate
metal

LED epi-layer GaAs substrate

Low Temperature

Mirror substrate LED epi-layer GaAs substrate (d)patterned LED Mirror substrate LED epi layer

Bonding interface

(c)GaAs substrate removal Mirror substrate LED epi-layer

Backside-Contact

N-Contact
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WB-LED – After bonding and removing GaAs sub.

High Bonding Yield
From VPEC
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TS-Type LED by Lumileds (HP)
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GaP wafer bonding

Need second growth ? Need to handle thin epi-layer ? High bonding temperature (700°C ~) and long bonding time
VPE regrowth MOCVD GaP epi-layer 40?m GaP epi-layer

LED structure GaAs-Sub.

3?m 350?m

LED structure GaAs-Sub.

3?m 350?m

LED structure

GaP epi-layer

LED structure GaP-Sub. 350?m From VPEC

wafer bonding

GaP epi-layer

LED structure GaP-Sub.

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InGaN chip

?

Lift off E-Gun

Lift off

E-Gun Al2O3(2160A) Ti/Al/Pt/Au RIE Mesa(8000A)

Hard Mask E-Gun E-Gun

TCL

TCL(Ni/Au) Ni(3000A) P-GaN InGaN N-GaN

InGaN Epi Wafer Sapphire

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Wafer bonding

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After bonding and removing Sapphire substrate

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Diagram of Flip chip

From Dr. R. Scott Kern Lumileds Lighting

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Thermal conductivities of the materials

(W/m?K)

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Models for Flip chip bonding
LED Flip chip ?: ???( ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Ultrasonic Flip chip
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?)

1mm

Resistance of flip-chip bonding

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Process time of flip-chip bonding

1.2sec/chip

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Process Wafermaunter

Diesynge Process DieSynge Washing irradiation

○ Wafer Diesnge

○ wafer Washing F ip Chip Bonder

Process

D

cleaning

BUMP BONDING



○ Au-Bump Bonding

○ US Interconnection

Submount Process
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Scriber

Laser or Diamond

Sapphire

Sapphire

Breaking
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Au-Sn phase diagram
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Eutectic Point AuSn(80/20):282 Eutectic Point AuSn(10/90):217

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?? < 10um
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US

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?

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US POWER

? ?

Hi pin count LSI

?
Interconnection Temp
Force

? ? ?, ?

?

? ?

?

chip / fine pin count

PIONEER FA CORPORATION

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Metallization

P+ N-type
SiOx

Q.W. P-GaN Ohmic layer Reflector
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Process Issues of Flip chip

Diffusion
Metallization

N+ P-type
Metal

N+

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Metallization (for Flip chip)
Sputter

E-Gun

Electroplating

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Stud Bumps

From PFA

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Stud Bumps from Polamar

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Stud Bumps

From PFA

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Underfill

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Problems of Flip chip bonding

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Stud bump Bonding
??
? ? ?

?

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

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Flip chip Bonding
??: ? Temperature ? Vf, ? US?POWER ? IR ? ? ? IR, ?

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Damage from Flip chip Bonding

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Key of US Flip chip
? ? ? ? ? ? ?

? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? ?

?

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LED
?? ? ? ?

?

? ?? ?

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Zener Diode

N-type
Metal

P+

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Zener Diode

N+ P-type
Metal

N+

69

ESD Submount IV curve

Zener
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Zener

Submount IV curve

14mil Flip chip IV curve
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ESD Testing

HBM IR@5V<10 A

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Lumileds LED

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High Lifetime (14mil Flip chip)

Test of 1008 hours
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Blue chip without Zener diode

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Flip chip Thermal Stability

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High current Testing (Chip & FC)

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?LED

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a typical indicator LED

From Lumileds

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Power LED

From Lumileds

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Thermal Resistance Model

From Lumileds

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Thermal Resistance
Series
total=
Tj

TJunction

Θ total = Σ in+1Θ i
c-b+ b-a

chip die attach submount

j-c+

j-c
Ts

Junction to Case (slug)

submount attach
Case to Board

c-b
Ti

leadframe/slug solder
Tboard

b-a
Ta

Board to Ambient

Courtesy of Joe Mazzochette, Lamina Ceramics

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High Power LED Package Structure

For Wafer Bonding product or Flip chip
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High Flux Light Emitting Diode

?

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Low-Temperature Cofired Ceramics (LTCC)

From Lamina ceramics
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From welwyn-tt.co.uk

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Lumileds Luxeon?III

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276lm @15.4W,18 lm/W

From NeoPac

From PIER
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Power Chip Market
40mil~ 350mA~

14mil~24mil 20mA~100mA

12~14mil 5mA~20mA

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LCD LED backlight

NEC 21’3 LED backlight

Sony 12’1 backlight
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Taipei Municipal Social Education Hall

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