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高考英语专项指导短文改错(改)

高考英语专项指导短文改错
一.<考纲>对短文改错的要求 高考短文改错的目的在于测试考生判断发现,纠正语篇中语言使用错误的能力,以及考察考生在语篇 中综合运用英语知识的能力. 二.题型特点 1.词法内容。包括名词、冠词、代词、动词时态、非谓语动词、短语动词的用法,不规则动词的变 化形式,形容词的比较级,形容词副词的区别,介词的误用等。 2.句法内容。包括主谓一致、指代一致,并列连词,从属连词等引导各种从句的关联词语,感叹句, 疑问句,祈使句的结构等。 3.行文逻辑。包括句子的肯定、否定、推理、判断等。 三.主要错误类型 1。 动词与非谓语动词 2.名词错误 3.介词的错误 4.形容词副词的错误 5.代词的错误 6.冠词的错误 7. 连词的错误 8.句子结构 9.赘述 10.时态与语态错误 11.定语从句错误 12.主谓一致错误 13.名词性从句错误 14.平行结构错误 1。 动词与非谓语动词 短文改错中有关动词的 题设置是 最多的 ,主要涉及动词 1) 时态的错用。2) 第三人称单数形式 错用。3) And 前后动词时态不一致。4) 主谓不一致。5) 缺少谓语动词(尤其缺 be 动词) 。6)主动 语态与被动语态错用 7) 不定式,动名词作主语,宾语,and 连接的不定式或动名词前后一致(尤 其距离较远时) ,现在分词和过去分词的区别等。 1) I was only about six when he held his hand out to me. I took it to mine and we walked,Then I ask him (NMET2007) 2) Now my picture and the prize is hanging in the library.(NMET2000) 3)If I have the honor to be chose to work for the 29th Olympic Games, (NMET2008) 4)I have often dreamed of talk face to face with you(NMET2008) 5) Mr. Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to set up some schools for poor children. 6) My father was so pleasing that he suggested I go to England for a holiday .(NMET2008) 7) Play football makes us grow up tall and strong.(NMET2005) 8)There was no more buses, they had no choice but to walk home. 2.名词错误 单复数互改是高考英语改错题的基本题型之一,改动的依据有:一是根据名词前的修饰限定成份; 确定名词单复数的方法: ①看修饰语。 可数名词前若有数词及 many, a lot of, quite a few, one of…, all the (one’s)…等修饰时,要用复数。②主谓的一致。③可数名词前无单数修饰语,一定要用复数。 ④看其他限定。二是根据上下文的逻辑关系. 1)I looked at his other hands(NMET2007) 2)I can help visitorsfind their ways in the city (NMET2008) 3) I saw your name on a list of teacher who wished to spend their holidays in France this summer. 4) This is really a problem we Chinese official pay more attention to. 5) Is it true that some Germen will come to visit our school next week? 6)There are so many kinds of computers on sale that we can’t make up our mind which to buy. 7) All the woman doctors in the hospital got a present on the eighth of March. 3.介词的错误 介词错误有介词的遗漏、副词性和连词性词组前使用多余的介词及固定搭配中的介词误用 ji 及介
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词和动词或形容词的搭配 1) I have just got some good news to tell to you( NMET2008) 2) I look forward to hear from you soon.(NMET94) 3) I will first improve English so that I can talk easily about foreign visitors. (NMET2008) 4) Will you join in us if we decide to do the new experiment? 5) Lisa was working as a secretary in a big firm for the first time I met her. 6) She goes to visit her parents in the country once in a month. 7)The discovery she’s made in medicine is great importance to science. 8) She had a feeling that the sad-looking man was not a person she could trust or talk. 9) It took place in the afternoon when I met you in the street. 4.形容词副词的错误 1) 形容词错用名词。如 important—importance different difference,difficult---difficulty, 2) 形容词和副词错用 a)I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together.(NMET99) b)I would easy finish 300 envelops in five hours (NMET2008) c) I will learn more about the history of the Olympics as good as the 2008 Olympic Games. (NMET2008) d)I’m sure your illness is caused by something more seriously than overwork. e)The mixture of coffee, milk, and sugar tastes differently from tea. f)My hometown has taken on a new look. How great it has changed! g) He listened to his heart and said there was nothing serious wrong with him. 5.代词的错误 代词的 考查重点包括人称代词,物主代词,反身代词不定代词和指示代词的误用。代词不仅要与 其所指代对象一致,其运用还要符合上下文的语气及逻辑关系。 代词错误主要有人称代词格的误用,不定代词使用错误,作形式主语与形式宾语 it 的遗漏或误用 以及代词所指代的内容与先行词在性和数方面不一致等 1) I should be able to tell visitors about our history and culture and show them their great achievements. (NMET2008 ) 2) I was only about six when he held his hand out to me .I took it in me (NMET2008) 3) Because there is only a few rain and the weather is neither too hot nor too cold NMET2008 福建) 4) I have the same idea as his. 5)We got on the school bus and which took us straight to the People’s Park. 6) The football team has done well this year. All of their members have trained hard. 7)He designed new tools which were fit for the users when they worked with it. 8)Haven’t I made this clear that you mustn’t spit everywhere? 6.冠词的错误 英语中冠词只有三个,从高考英语改错题的角度来看,只能从以下几个方向出题:1)不定冠词 a 和 an 互改;2)不定冠词 a 或 an 和定冠词 the 互改;3)根据需要增删冠词 4) 习惯用法 短文改错对冠词的考查几乎年年都有,但多是基本用法如:不可数名词表泛指,前面多冠词;专有 名词前多冠词;单数可数名词前缺冠词;不定冠词 a, an 与定冠词 the 的误用以及固定搭配中的冠词 错误等。 1. As I am inexperienced teacher, I’m afraid I have little to say about the subject. 2. One of the students who were sitting in front gave a different answer to the question. 3. The computer is an useful machine that can do many things for us.
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4. Many people agree that the knowledge of English is a must in international trade. 5. He failed but he wanted to try the second time. 6. How beautifully she sings! I’ve never heard the better voice. 7.A great celebration was held in the People’s Square on the National Day. 8.I will learn more about history of the Olympic as well as the 2008 Olympic Games.(NMET2008 9.Suddenly, I caught a sight of my English teacher.(NMET2000) 7. 连词的错误: 连词分从属连词和并列连词,答题时需注意: (一)根据全文逻辑发展顺序正确选择并列连词或从属连词。 (二) 从属连词如 because 与 so, though / although 与 but, if 与 and /or 等不能同时使用。(三) 正确使用并列连词 and,or,but 和 for 解题时要根据词与词、 句子与句子之间的关系来判断连接词的使用是否正确或是否多余或遗漏, 要 注意句子结构的完整性。 1. It is a very important examination but I can’t afford to fail it. 2. The new person on the job feels better after he and she has played tennis with other people in the office. 3. In some places you can borrow many books as you want. 4. People in industrial countries can expect to live for twice so long as people who lived a few hundred years ago. 6. Most people can get help from a doctor or go to a hospital since they are ill. 7. It’s years after I painted a picture. 8. We tried to fix it and there was nothing we could do. 08 年 81.I`d like to stay there for half a month, visiting places of interest or practicing my English 08 年安徽 83 题 My friend could read some German,but I couldn`t, and I gave her the…. 8.句子结构及词性错误 根据词在句中的位置及与其他词的修饰与被修饰的关系来确定词的正确形式, 词在句中不同的句法 功能要求使用相应的词性。 词性误用包括形容词副词误用和其他词性误用。 连系动词后或名词前用 形容词,修饰行为动词、形容词副词、过去分词或整个句子用副词。句子结构主要指固定句型及搭 配 (1)They eager to know everything about China and asked me lots of questions. (2)I‘d like to your penfriend,and get to know more about your country. ^ (3)We`d better not to miss the chance to enjoy it (NMET2008 重庆) 4)Usually at the begin of a meeting, we sang the national song. 5)When I heard the steps outside, I hurriedly went up to the window to see who past by. 9.赘述 高考英语改错题中的赘述是指在一些固定表达中或从上下文逻辑来看用了多余的词, 从而使句子表 达不合规范或造成逻辑上的重复, 造成语义重复则须删除。 主要有形容词副词比较级前用了多余的 more,动词后接介词或副词造成语义重复以及句中使用多余的词等。 1. I never knew that a ride down a river could be so much exciting. 2. We must study hard in order to serve for the people better in the future. 3. I hope that both you two could come and visit us some time soon. 4. Today I visited the Smiths ----- my first time visit to an American family. 99 年 86 题:Now I can't watch much television,but a few years ago I used to watch it every night.
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02 年 85 题:I was so tired that I fell asleep at the moment my head touched the pillow. 10.时态与语态错误 时态错误:根据语境用错时态; 根据句子结构或句意用错时态; 根据连词对称性原则用错时态及根 据时间状语用错时态。解题时应根据特定的语境、特定的时间状语提示,正确调整时态。 语态错 误:是该用被动语态却用了主动语态或不能用于被动语态的词如 happen, take place, occur, sell well, belong to 等却用了被动语态。 1. Do you know what subjects they study while they were at college? 2. It was a long time since I saw Tom at my uncle’s and I don’t know where he’s been these months. 3. The ship hardly left the port when a terrible storm came. 4. The time is sure to come when my words come true. 5. The rule requires that everyone has his bike, new or old, checked once a year. 6. There by the river sitting an old man who seemed to be fishing. 7. You are wet all over. You must have caught in the sudden heavy rain. 8. In the summer of 1998, serious floods were occurred in many parts of China. 11.定语从句错误 ①从句中缺少作主语的关系代词。②从句中使用了多余的人称代词。③ that 与 which 的误用。 ④ 关系代词与关系副词的误用。 ⑤非限制性定语从句中使用人称代词、物主代词、指示代词。⑥从 句谓语动词的人称和数与先行词不一致。⑦定语从句与强调句型误用。 1. The first passengers had left the sinking ship were women and children. 2. The technicians took a single day to complete the work I had planned to finish it within a week. 3. All of a sudden the lights went out in the dinning-room, where the guests were having dinner there. 4. In class our teacher spoke to us about the writer and his works which were still unknown to us all. 5. I don’t think it is one of the best films that has ever been shown this year. 6. It was not until 1979 when he got happily back to work. 7. At that time something unexpected happened to his family, this made it necessary for him to stop school and work in society. 8. I decided to write Chaplin, one of his films I had seen seven years before. 12.主谓一致错误 谓语动词的人称和数与主语不一致。 1. The number of passengers killed in the accident were surprising. 2. Not every student in all the classes know the importance of mastering the English language. 3. All through his life Einstein believed fighting and killing in war were wrong. 4. Going to bed early and getting up early are a good habit. 5. Although many of the houses in the small town are still in need of repair, there have been much improvement in their appearances. 6. The first two questions in the test paper were difficult, but the rest was easy. 7. Nick is looking for another job because nothing he does satisfy his boss. 8. Anyone can borrow books and it cost nothing to borrow them. 13.名词性从句错误 主要是连接词的多余、遗漏和误用。 1. It didn’t matter that I would win or not. 2. If you hear something you don’t understand, just listen calmly, and it will help you to make clear that you don’t understand.
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3. Little is known about his childhood except he began to work in a factory at the age of ten. 5. What the old man’s son wanted to know is why the gold had been hidden. 6. What modern science and technology helps the society progress is a fact accepted by most people. 7. What the doctor really doubts is that my mother will recover from the serious illness. 8. You’re responsible to whomever is in charge of sales. 14.平行结构错误 在表达相同的概念是要使用相同的语法结构, 即动词与动词想配 (其时态及其他变化形式要一致) , 形容词与形容词相配,分词与分词相配,短语与短语相配等。平行结构常借助于连词 and, or, but, 以及连词词组 not only…but also, not.. but, either…or, as well as, rather than 等。 1. He looked at the children playing under the tree and feeling very pleased. 2. Playing football not only makes us grow tall and strong but also give us a sense of fair play and team spirit. 3. I keep a bakery open not to do business but make sure the shop is safe. 6. The first thing she could do was go up to her trainer and thanked her for all the help she had given her. 7. Charles and Linda Manson do all of these things as well as climbed buildings. 8. I told Father, Mother, Sister, all my friends what a time I had 归纳及总结: 1.连词(and, or, but, either… or, neither…nor, not only…but also)并列连词所连接的前后两部分结构 是否等同,要注意词性、时态、动词的形式要前后一致,这是解答与连词及其相关问题的高考英语 改错题的关键所在。 2.发现有平行结构,就要检查是否有用词不一致或成分缺少而引起的句子不平衡错误,特别注意区 分 and 连接的是谓语还是平行结构并注意前后对等,如连接的成分对等要考虑连词错误(and 一致, or 选择 ,but 转折) 3.发现有比较结构,就要检查是否有形容词、副词的级(比较级形式重复,应去掉 more) 、程度副 词、比较的对象不一致(常常加介词或代词)以及冠词方面的错误;发现有转折、因果、对比等结 构时,就要检查是否有行文逻辑方面的错误(常常在第二个句子前加 while,so) ; 4.发现有多重结构句,就要检查是否有时态、语态、引导词或成分短缺错误(注重两个分句的时态 和人称应当保持一致) ; 5.发现并列主语(and 连接主语是指两个概念还是指一个概念) 、从句、不定代词、集合名词、非谓 语动词、时间、金钱等作主语,together with 等引导的成分修饰主语时,就要检查是否有主谓不一 致(单数名词+with, together with, as well as, but, besides, including 等+其它名词作主语时,其谓 语应当用单数)的错误。

答题策略
1.通读全文,掌握大意;2.整句理解,逐行分析;3.复读全文,验证答案;4.准确清晰,答题规范。 备考方案 1.积累词汇搭配、习惯用法;2.强化语法,夯实基础; 3.收集自己的错题;4.回归语篇,整体推进;5.修改自己的作文. 短文改错口诀 动词形,名词数,注意是形还是副;非谓动词细辨别,习惯用法要记住; 句子成分多分析,逻辑错误须关注。 高考演练 (一) My parents are both interested in reading and music , and 1_________
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my father prefers to history books while my mother likes 2_________ to read novels and woman's magazines. In music , their 3__________ tastes are similar , and they had never tired of folk music . 4__________ Most of the time , they are in agreement on bringing up 5__________ children , They both believe in giving their children loves , 6__________ and none believes in punishing a child physically . 7__________ for times , they agree with each other , but sometimes 8__________ they seem differently .Perhaps that is why none of 9__________ their children knows for sure which parents he should follow . 10_________ (二) There was an old say in England :"See a pin 1___________ and pick it up , all the day you have a good luck." 2____________ It is 8:30 a. m. Ted , a little Londoner got to the 3____________ underground railway station . It was such a busy 4____________ hour when too many people were rushing in . 5____________ Ted happened to see a pin in the ground . To have 6____________ good luck he decided to pick up . When he stopped , 7____________ a very fat woman fall over him . Poor Ted could see 8___________ the pin very clear , but not many people could see Ted 9____________ and fat woman . Unfortunately , men and women were on top of them ! 10___________ (三) Two friends were traveling across the forest 1___________ when they met with a bear . The one who was in big 2___________ fear , climbed up into a tree and hide himself, 3___________ without thinking of his friend . The another one 4____________ found that had no chance to running away, so 5____________ he threw himself on the ground and pretended to dead . For he had heard that a bear 6___________ could never touch a dying body . 7___________ as he thus lain, the bear came up to 8____________ his head , and smelt at his nose and ears . 9____________ but the man held his breathe , and the beast 10___________ supposing him to be dead , walked away . (四) Jack London was a famous America writer . He was 1__________ born in January 12th , 1876 , in San Francisco . His family 2__________ was very poor , Jack had to leave for school to make 3__________ money . He worked hard in much different jobs . 4___________ Later Jack returned school , but he didn't stay . He 5___________ wrote , "Life and pocket book were all too short ." 6___________ In 1887, He went to Alaska to find out gold . He 7___________ returned home and started to write . His writings were successful , 8___________ and he became rich and famous . Jack was no a happy man , 9____________
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however. In poor health , he took off her own life in 1926. (五) Yesterday I bought a new coat in a shop , and I found it so big for me . This morning , I went to the shop and change the coat I bought yesterday . But the salesgirl treated me coldly . Firstly , she didn't admit that I buy the coat in her shop . Then she said I made it be dirty . So I got very angry and quarreled with him , pointing to the rules on the wall . Just then , manager turned up . He said sorry to me . At last they changed other one for me . in satisfaction, I said good-bye to them and took the new coat home happily. (六) In the eighteenth century , cities became larger and larger . People have moved from the country and small towns in cities , because there were more work for them to do in cities . In Sundays and Holidays , people liked to go to the country to have a good time there . But no every family had a horse and carriage . Inventors tried to meet the need . The first bicycle , that was very simple , appeared in 1790 . People called it as "the horse on the wheels ".Then in 1861 with many improvements ,bicycle became a practical form of transportation . People liked bikes because of they were less expensive than horses. (七) You are a middle school student , are you ? So of course , you have a teacher teaches you English . And under the help of your teacher , you do a lot of listening , speaking ,reading and writing in the class . That's right . you should follow your teacher study hard . But , I think , if you want improve your English fast , I'll give you an advice that after class or in your free time , you should listen to BBC English from London in the radio or watch TV. CCTV broadcast good English Programmes , too . (八) Tables manners are important in China . If one is invited to dinner , he should not late and should bring some small gift for the host . The oldest sits facing the door or the
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10__________ 1____________ 2____________ 3____________ 4____________ 5___________ 6___________ 7___________ 8____________ 9____________ 10____________

1____________ 2_____________ 3_____________ 4____________ 5____________ 6____________ 7____________ 8____________ 9___________ 10__________ 1___________ 2____________ 3___________ 4____________ 5____________ 6____________ 7___________ 8___________ 9____________ 10___________ 1____________ 2____________ 3____________ 4_____________

window and the other gests sit in order of his age . One should begin eating until everyone was seated . It is bad manners to eat only from the best dish , to talk with the mouths full and eat neither too fast or too slow . If one finishes eating and wish to leave , he should say " Take your time , please "to the other guests . (九) When Joe left university , he was got a job in a factory , but after he had been where for some years , he decided that he have a change , so he put a notice in several newspapers, said what experience he had and the kind of job he would like to have . One of the answer received was from a man who was looking a job , too . This man wrote to him , "Dear , sir when you get a new job , be kind enough to give your name and address to your present master as I have been tried to find a position like yours for a long time ,"After he read the letter , he audden realized that what he had done was really foolish. (十) All the world people enjoy sports . Sports help to keep people healthy , happily and help them to live longer . Many people like to watch the others to play games . They buy tickets or turn up their TV to watch them . Often they get very happy when "their" players or team win . Some sports are very interested and people everywhere like them very much . Football , for example , played around the world . Swimming is popular at all countries near the sea or in those of many rivers or lakes .

5____________ 6____________ 7____________ 8____________ 9____________ 10___________

1____________ 2____________ 3____________ 4____________ 5____________ 6____________ 7____________ 8___________ 9____________ 10___________ 1___________ 2___________ 3__________ 4___________ 5___________ 6___________ 7____________ 8___________ 9___________ 10___________

亲爱的同学们,在人生的 战场中,唯有日日进步不屈不挠,始能获胜。在我们的 学习生活中也是 一样,只有日日学习,时时进步的 学生才能在高考中取得优异成绩,才能让自己的高中时光充满 乐趣和 意义

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