江苏省句容市后白中学中考英语语法复习 名词 牛津版
【要点提示】 对名词的考查主要集中在可数名词复数形式的变化、 不可数名词的用法以及名词所有格等方 面。近几年，词义辨析题经常出现。 一、复数形式的变化规则 1. 规则变化： （1）一般加-s 或-es（以辅音字母 + y 结尾的词要先变 y 为 i，再加-es） 。如：map—maps box—boxes story—stories （2）以 o 结尾的词多数加-es。如 potato—potatoes，但某些外来词和缩写词如 piano， photo 等，以及 以“oo”或“元音字母 + o”结尾的词只加-s。如：zoo—zoos radio— radios （3） 以-f 或-fe 结尾的词， 通常变 f 为 v， 再加-(e)s。 如： knife—knives wife—wives 2. 不规则变化： 如：child—children foot—feet mouse—mice man—men deer—deer sheep—sheep 3. 特别提示： （1） 部分集合名词既可用作单数 （作为整体） ， 也可用作复数 （作为成员） 。 如： class, family, team, group 等。 （2）合成词的复数形式的变化一般都体现在主体词上，但当 man, woman 作定语时，定语和 主体词都要变。如：a story teller—story tellers（讲故事的人） a woman doctor—women doctors（女医生） （3）有些名词表示成双成对的东西，通常只用其复数形式。如：glasses（眼镜） pants （裤子） （4）部分学科名词虽以-s 结尾，但用作单数。如： mathematics（数学） physics（物理学） 二、不可数名词 1. 不可数名词无复数形式， 其量的概念经常借助于单位词来表达。 如： a piece of furniture （一件家具） a bag of sand（一包沙） 2. 某些名词可以兼作可数名词 （表示个体名词） 和不可数名词 （表示物质名词或抽象名词） 。 如： a glass（一个玻璃杯）—glass（玻璃） a room（一个房间）—ro om（空间） a chicken（一只鸡）—chicken（鸡肉） 三、名词所有格的用法 1. 当名词是人名或表示有生命以及被视为有生命的 东西时，可以用名词的所有格形式：在名词末尾加’s 构成(有-s 或-es 的复数形式名词末 尾只加’)。如：John’s books, the workers’ library, the Children’s Pal ace 2. 如果某物为两人所共有，则只需在后一个名词后加 ‘s；如果两人各自拥有，需要在这 两个名词后分别加上 ‘s。如：May and Jane’s car（她俩共有的车） May’s and Jane’s cars（她俩各自的车） 3. 表示国家、城市等的地点名词和表示时间、距离、度量及金钱的名词，虽是无生命的， 但是也可用’s。如： a two weeks’ holiday
4. 双重所有格“of + 名词所有格”或“of + 名词性物主代词”结构常用于表示部分概念 或带有一定的感情色彩。如：a friend of my father’s, a book of mine 5. ‘s 后的名词如指商店、家宅等地点时，该名词常省略。如：at the doctor’s（在诊 所） 【链接】 “of + 名词”结构常用于表示无生命事物的所有关系，也可表示有生命事物的所有关系。 如：the legs of the table, the classroom of the first-year students 【名词专练】 Ⅰ. 请根据句意及汉语提示写出所缺单词。 1. If our school team wins the last two__________(比赛), we will be the top. 2. There is something exciting in____________ (今天) newspaper. 3 . All the _____________(英雄) are great people. We should remember them for ever. 4. I hear we will have a _________________ (三天) holiday. 5. Th ey are interested in science, and they want to be___________ (科学家) when they grow up. 6. There are some____________(狐狸) in the zoo. 7. Wh ich do you like better, _____________ (土豆) or_____________ (西红柿)? 8. We will go to my_____________(叔叔家) for dinner this Saturday. 9. These ______________ (手表) are made in China. 10. ________________ (毛衣) are used for keeping warm. 11. We can get lots of _______________ (信息) from the Internet. 12. I am hungry. Please give me ______________ (两片面包). 13. There are two __________________(架子) in the room. 14. The earthquake in Wenchuan made lots of people lose their ____________(生命). 15. I would give it to medical ____________(研究) if I had a million dollars. 16. There are two ___________ (男老师) and three___________ (男学生) in the room. 17. The ground is covered with____________ (树叶). 18. ________________ (八月) is the eighth month of the year. 19. My father just got his driving____________ (执照). 20. Mike’s uncle is a film_____________(导演) of our city. Ⅱ. 请从各题后所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中选出最佳答案。 ( )1. If these trousers are too big, buy a smaller____________ . A. set B. one C. piece D. pair ( )2. —Oh! There isn’t enough ____________ for us in the bus. —No hurry. Let’s wait for the next. A. place B. land C. room D. floor ( )3. —Is that a______________? —Yes, there are many kinds of beautiful shoes in it. Let’s go and have a look. A. fruit shop B. toy store C. shoe store D. book shop ( )4. I wanted to tell him the truth, but I didn’t have a (an) _________. A. excuse B. chance C. test D. choice
( )5. She has been in Chongqing for eight years. Chongqing has become her second ___________ . A. station B. house C. home D. family ( )6. —Please give me a____________ when you arrive. —OK. I’ll tell you everything as soon as I get there. A. ring B. present C. hand D. ride ( )7. —What can I do for you? —I’d like several ___________and some peas. A. potato B. fish C. meat D. banana ( )8. —What can you see at the foot of the hill? —A group of ____________are eating ___________ and__________ . A. deer, grass, leaves B. cow, grass, leaf C. deer, grass, leaf D. cow, grass, leaves ( )9. — Excuse me, waiter. We’re leaving. Can you bring me the ___________, please? —OK. Here you are. A. money B. bill C. watch D. list ( )10. —Where are you going, Xiang Hua? —I’m going to the_____________ to see a movie. A. bookstore B. supermarket C. mountain D. cinema ( )11. I think we should have____________ in ourselves and we will make it if we have a try. A. success B. confidence C. progress D. knowledge ( )12. —Would you like some __________ to drink, Mr Green? —No, thanks. A. milk B. fruit C. meat D. bread ( )13. ______________ room is big and bright. They like it very much. A. Jim and Tony B. Jim’s and Tony C. Jim and Tony’s D. Jim’s and Tony’s ( )14. Two bikes are in front of the house. They’re___________ . A. the twins’ B. twin’s C. twins D. the twin’s ( )15. —Excuse me, is the factory far from here? —No, it’s about 5______________- walk. A. min utes B. minute C. minutes’ D. minute’s Ⅲ. 请用方框中所给单词的适当形式填空，完成短文。
water, challenge, year, fly, friend Mr Green is a successful manager (经理) in a company. He is always so bus y that he has little time for his friends. One day, Mr Green is on a (1)____________ when suddenly his plane crashes (坠毁). And Mr Green is the only person who is alive. He lands on a lonely island. On the island, Mr Green has to learn how to collect (2)__________ , hunt for food, and make a fire. Perhaps the most difficult (3)___________ is how to live without friends. In order to live, Mr Green develops a friendship with an unusual friend — a volleyball he calls Wilson. Mr Green learns a lot about himself when he is alone on the island. He realizes that he hasn’t been a very good friend because he is always thinking about himself. During his five (4) ____________on the island, Mr Green learns how to be a good friend of Wilson. Even though Wilson is just a volleyball, Mr Green talks to him and treats him as a friend. Mr Green learns that it is necessary to share (5)____________ happiness and sadness, and he learns that it is important to have someone to care about. He also learns that he should have cared more about his friends. When he makes friends with Wilson, he understands that friendship is a good feeling and that one must give as much as he takes.
参考答案 名词专练 Ⅰ. 1. matches 2. today’s 3. heroes 4. three-day / three days’ 5. scientists 6. foxes 7. potatoes, tomatoes 8. uncle’s 9. watches 10. Sweaters 11. information 12. two pieces of bread 13. shelves 14. lives 15. research 16. men teachers, boy students 17. leaves 18. August 19. licence 20. director Ⅱ. 1-5 DCCBC 6-10 ABABD 11-15 BACAC Ⅲ. 1. flight 2. wate r 3. challenge 4. years 5. friends’