余姚市 2017 高考英语一轮阅读理解选编（四）
阅读理解。阅读下列短文, 从给的四个选项 (A、B、C 和 D) 中, 选出最佳选项。 (2014·天津模拟) I heard many parents complaining that their teenage children are rebelling(叛逆). I wish it were so. At your age you ought to be growing away from your parents. You should be learning to stand on your own feet. But take a good look at the present rebellion. It seems that teenagers are taking the same way of showing that they disagree with their parents. Instead of striking out boldly on their own, most of them are clutching(紧握)at one another’s hands for reassurance(安 慰). They claim they want to dress as they please. But they all wear the same clothes. Then set off in new directions in music. But somehow they all end up with listening to the same record together. Their reason for thinking or acting in thus-and-such a way is that many people are doing it. They have come out of their cocoon(茧)into a larger cocoon. It has become harder and harder for a teenager to stand up against the popularity wave and go his or her own way. Industry has firmly carved out a teenage market. These days every teenager can learn from the advertisements what a teenager should have and be. And many of today’s parents have come to award high marks for the popularity of their children. All this adds to a great barrier(障碍)for the teenager who wants to find his or her own path. But the barrier is worth climbing over. The path is worth following. You may want to listen to classical music instead of going to a party. You may want to collect rocks when everyone else is collecting records. You may have some thoughts that you don’t care to share with your classmates at once, well, go to it. Find yourself. Popularity will come with the people who respect you for who you are. That is the only kind of popularity that really counts. 【文章大意】本文鼓励青少年要有自己独立的思维, 不要依赖父母或随波逐流。 1. In this passage, the author wants to tell .
A. teenagers how to learn to decide things for themselves B. readers how to be popular with people around C. parents how to control and guide their children D. people how to understand and respect each other 【解析】选 A。主旨大意题。根据第一段中“At your age you ought to be growing away from your parents.
You should be learning to stand on your own feet. ”可知 A 项正确。 2. According to the author, many teenagers think they are brave enough to act on their own, but in fact, most of them .
A. have much difficulty understanding each other B. lack confidence C. dare not cope with problems single-handed D. are much afraid of getting lost 【解析】 选 C。 细节理解题。 根据第一段最后一句及第二段内容可知, 他们想我行我素, 但结果却随波逐流。 3. What does the author think of advertisements? A. Convincing. C. Instructive. B. Influential. D. Authoritative(权威的).
【解析】选 B。推理判断题。第三段提到青少年很难不受流行趋势的影响。今天, 青少年们可以从广告中知 道青少年应该有什么, 应该成为什么样的人, 这说明广告对青少年是有影响力的。 4. During the teenage years, one should learn to A. differ from others in as many ways as possible B. get into the right reason and become popular C. find one’s real self D. rebel against parents and the popularity wave 【解析】选 C。细节理解题。根据最后一段中的“You may have some thoughts that you don’t care to share with your classmates at once, well, go to it. Find yourself. ”可知 C 项正确。 .
说理议论（阅读理解）由 (2009 江西,D)改编 Many people write to newspapers and magazines to express their opinions.Letters to the editor must carry the writer’s full name,address and telephone number,although the information is not necessary for publication.This requirement to provide personal particulars is a clear indication that writers are held responsible for what they say.When a writer wants his voice heard,he needs to claim ownership of his voice.Responsibility is the name of the game. “People today prefer living together to putting their signatures on a marriage certificate because they refuse to accept responsibility for the relationship,” said social worker Ken Yip,“and this is what is causing a lot of family problems.” When we sign a paper,for example,a
business contract or a bank document,the signature is a seal of consent,an agreement to take the matter seriously.Most governments and many organizations will not process written complaints if they do not bear the writer’s signature.The absence of a signature,they explain,tells us that the writer cannot be too serious and therefore does not deserve a reply. There are people who wish to remain anonymous(匿名的)for various reasons.Multi-billionaire Mr.King donates generously to charity several times a year.He gives simply because he wants to help but not for the publicity his donations may bring,and he does not want his good deeds to make news.In other cases,people insist on anonymity because they are afraid of the consequences of revealing their identity.Crime witnesses may be willing to assist the police,but most are unwilling to give their names when reporting a crime. Name or no name? The answer is very personal and lies in how much we want to get involved.We all have a name.It is a matter of responsibility to use it when we make a statement,a claim or an accusation.We all want to honour our own name,and it is only by stamping our expression of an opinion with our own name that we honour what we say. 1.What does the writer mean by saying“Responsibility is the name of the game”?( A.Writers need to provide their personal information in the game. B.Publications must bear the writer’s full name,address and phone number. C.Writers should be responsible for their names. D.Names are required to indicate writers’ responsibility for what they say. 2.The second paragraph suggests that a paper without a signature may A.help to end a relationship B.not get a reply C.be accepted all the same D.become a family problem 3.Some people don’t want their names known because they are A.hesitant to make a donation B.unwilling to draw public attention C.afraid of an accusation D.ready for involvement 4.The passage is mainly about A.honour and writers
B.identity and signature C.signature and responsibility D.anonymity and signature 语篇解读:本文论述了“署名”的问题,署名是负责任的象征,但有些情况下,人们不愿“署名”。 答案及剖析 :1.D 推理判断题。由文章论述的内容尤其是末段倒数第二句的 It is a matter of
responsibility to use it when we make a statement,a claim or an accusation.可以推出 D 项正确。 2.B 事实细节题。由第二段末句可知答案为 B。 3.B 事实细节题。由文章倒数第二段内容可知答案为 B。 4.C 主旨大意题。通读文章可知,本文主要讲述的是署名与责任的问题,故选 C。 【长难句子分析】
阅读下列短文，从每题所给的四个选项（A、B、C、D）中，选出最佳选项。 【2014 综合测试】 No one knows why people dream, but some dreams might be connected to the mental processes that help us learn. In a recent study, scientists found a connection between nap-time (午睡时 间) dreams and better memory in people who were learning a new skill. So perhaps one way to learn something new is to practice, practise, practise---and then sleep on it. “I was surprised by this finding,” Robert Stickgold, a Harvard University scientist who led the study. In the study, 100 college students each spent an hour on a computer, trying to get through a virtual maze (虚拟迷宫). The maze was difficult, and the study participants had to start in a different place each time they tried---making it even more difficult. Then, for the first 90 minutes of a five-hour break, half of the participants were required
to stay awake while half were told to sleep. Participants who stayed awake were asked to describe their thoughts. Participants who slept were asked to describe any dream they had. Stickgold and his colleagues wanted to know about NREM, or non-REM sleep. REM stands for “rapid eye movement”, which is what happens during REM sleep. This period of sleep often brings strange dreams to a sleeper, although dreams can happen in both kinds of sleep. Stickgold wanted to know what people were dreaming about when their eyes weren’t moving, during NREM sleep. Other studies have found a connection between NREM bring activity and learning ability. Four of the 50 people who slept said their dreams were about the maze. Later, when these four people tried the computer maze again, they were able to complete it faster. Stickgold believes the dream itself doesn;t help a person learn---it’s the other way around. He suspects that such dreams are caused by the brain processes associated with learning. All the maze-dreamers had done the task poorly the first time, which makes Stickgold wonder if the NREM dreams show up when a person finds a new task particularly difficult. People who had other dreams, or people didn't sleep, didn't show the same improvement. 36. In the first stage of the study, the participants were asked to A. design a maze on computer B. find their way out of a maze C. decide where to begin a maze D. remember a location in a maze 37. What happened to the participants during the break? A. Half of them were woken up when they started to dream. B. Half of them were asked to dram about the maze. C. All of them were asked to describe their thoughts. D. Half of them were asked to sleep for 90 minutes. 38. What can we learn from the passage? A. Everyone will dream about a new skill after learning it. B. Stickgold was the first to study dreams and learning. C. During NREM sleep, people usually don’t dream. D. Unusual dreams often occur during REM sleep. 39. In the first stage of the study, the participants were asked to A. design a maze on computer
B. find their way out of a maze C. decide where to begin a maze D. remember a location in a maze 40. Which of the following statement best summarizes the study’s conclusion? A. Dreams have a role in learning. B. Dreams have no basis in reality. C. Dreams are important for health. D. Dreams are the best way to study. 【参考答案】36-40 BDDAA
阅读下列短文，从每题所给的四个选项（A、B、C、D）中，选出最佳选项。 【2014 综合测试】 The recent publication of autobiographies by two of Britain’s great scientists, biologist Richard Dawkins and physicist Stephen Hawking, is a wonderful opportunity to compare and contrast these two remarkable men. Surprisingly, they have rather more in common than we think. Most striking is the similarity in their backgrounds. They were born in the early 1940s to middle class families---not wealthy but comfortably off, with a strong commitment to academic excellence and public service. Both families were keen to send their boys to Oxford University---and both succeeded, Dawkins studying zoology and Hawking physics. Neither author has a very positive view of his early university life. Hawking describes the attitude at Oxford in the 1950s and 1960s as very anti-work, “You were supposed to either be brilliant without effort or fail. Hard work was looked down upon by students and we all pretended that nothing was worth making an effort for.” He estimates that he studied for no more than an hour a day as an undergraduate student （本科生）. Undergraduate life was somewhat more rewarding for Dawkins. Like Hawking, he wasn’t particularly hard-working and never attended his lectures. But he found Oxford’s system of weekly essay-based lessons with an academic tutor useful, “It was really only the tutorial system that educated me.” For both men, scientific life really got going as postgraduates after 1962. Dawkins, who
remained at Oxford, describes brilliantly the academic competition among the postgraduate students, which he believed helped push him to develop the ideas that formed the basis of his most famous book, The Selfish Gene. This volume transformed scientific thinking about Darwinism evolution. Hawking, on the other hand, moved to Cambridge University after graduation, where his research into the universe would eventually make him the most famous physicists since Albert Einstein. He writes movingly about the disease which progressively crippled his entire body, leaving him unable to move and only able to communicate using a computer controlled by his eyes. Although communication is slow---he can write only 3 words a minute using the machine---his illness has not affected his mind or his research on space-time and origins of the universe. Each book is recommended individually as a personal introduction to an important scientific thinker. Read together, they provide a superb background to the academic and social climate of postwar British research. 41. Which of the following describes a similarity in Hawking’s and Dawkins’ backgrounds? A. They were both from wealthy families. B. They studied the same subject in university. C. They graduated from the same secondary school. D. They both came from families that valued good education. 42. Why did Hawking study very little as an undergraduate student? A. He preferred doing his own research and experiments. B. Students considered it inappropriate to study too much. C. The materials discussed in lectures were very easy for him. D. He was more interested in making friends with his classmates. 43. According to Dawkins, what helped him develop his most important ideas? A. His hard work as an undergraduate. B. The support he received from his family. C. The excellent tutors at Oxford University. D. The competition from other postgraduate students. 44. What can we reasonably infer about the two scientists from the passage? A. Dawkins worked much harder than Hawking as an undergraduate. B. Hawking is more respected by the scientific community. C. They knew each other during their studies a t Oxford.
D. Hawing has experienced more physical difficulties. 45. What is the function of the last paragraph? A. To state which book the writer prefers. B. To recommend the reviewed books to readers. C. To summarize the achievements of the two scientists. D. To suggest the order in which the books should be read. 【参考答案】41-45 DBDDB